What is a Noun? Unit 4 – Presentation 1 Coming from the Latin word nomen, which in turn comes from the Greek word onoma it means – and is – a name. How many Noun Categories are there? A lot! The two most comprehensive are: COUNTABLE, UNCOUNTABLE but there are also: ABSTRACT, CONCRETE and, depending on their kind, use, texture, composition, etc, PROPER, COMMON, MATERIAL, COLLECTIVE, COMPOUND, ETC.
A. Countable & Uncountable - Features Countable (C):Uncountable (U): 1. Singular & Plural1. Only Singular 2. Article a/ an in Singular 2. NO a/an 3. (How) many, a lot (of), (a) few, some/ any/ no 3. (How) much, a lot (of), (a) little, some/ any/ no
B. 5 Narrower Categories Proper Nouns (People’s first or family names, place names & all nouns starting with a capital first letter e.g. days, months, etc) [MAINLY (U)] Common Nouns (Names for people, things, animals, etc) [(C)] 1 Abstract Nouns (Intangible ideas, processes, qualities, etc) [MAINLY (U)] 1 Material Nouns [MAINLY (U)] 1 Collective Nouns (Countable, singular noun which involves groups of people/ things) [MAINLY [(C)] 2
U 1 Material and Abstract nouns can be used as Common and then they are fully (C). (a) [(U)] 1 As Uncountable[(U)] 1 As Countable-Common trust = εμπιστοσύνηtrusts/ a trust = καταπίστευμα, κοινοπραξία επενδύσεων work = εργασία, δουλειάworks/ a work = έργο (τέχνης/ κατασκευαστικά έργα) paper = χαρτί (πολτός, μάζα)papers/ a paper = εφημερίδα, έγγραφο, (επιστημονική) διατριβή/ ανακοίνωση, δοκιμασία εξέτασης wood = ξύλοwoods/ a wood = δασάκι, άλσος company = συντροφιά, παρέαcompanies/ a company = εταιρεία, ομάδα ανθρώπων, θίασος, λόχος
U 1 Material and Abstract nouns can be used as Common and then they are fully (C). (b) [(U)] 1 As Uncountable[(U)] 1 As Countable-Common iron = σίδερο, σίδηροςirons/ an iron = οικιακό σίδερο (σιδερώματος) coffee = καφέςcoffees/ a coffee = συγκεκριμένη ποικιλία ή σε παραγγελίες toast = φρυγανισμένο ψωμίtoasts/ a toast = πρόποση (ευχή ή ευχητήριος λόγος) chicken, etc = κοτόπουλο, κ.α. (είδος φαγητού) chickens/ a chicken = ένα ολόκληρο κοτόπουλο ή το ζώο
[(C)] 1 Common nouns for people may have a gender distinction or be of common gender. Common Gender Examples Teacher= δάσκαλος/ -α Professor= Καθηγητής/ -τρια πανεπιστημίου Doctor= Ο/ Η γιατρός Lawyer= Ο/ Η δικηγόρος Nurse = Νοσοκόμος/ -α
[(C) 2 ] Some typical collective nouns are: armycongregationpress audiencecouncilpublic castcommitteepolice classfamilypopulation clubfire brigade OR fire department [Am] staff companygroupschool crewgovernmentteam crowdjury
Use of Collective Nouns Followed by either a singular or a plural verb, pronoun(s), possessive(s), depending on whether we are referring to the group as a force or to its independent members. e.g. The whole school knows what he’s up to. We need to pressurise the government so that they deliver their pre-election commitments. The Police is an exception to this and is always plural considering that it is impossible for the whole force to be in any one place at the same time. e.g. The police have told us they’re looking into it.
C 1 : Nouns without Plural – Features In English these would simply be (U) nouns but they merit special attention because they are PLURAL in Greek. Careful NOT to use a/ an BUT some/ any/ no plural verb “” singular these/ those/ many/ few “” this/ that/ much/ little they/ them/ their(s) “” it/ its When we want to isolate a certain amount/ number of these, we can use a countable word with them, like: piece, item, article, flash, peal/ clap, head etc.
C 1 : Nouns without Plural [(U)] II Some of them may have different meanings when used as (C): As UncountableAs Countable litter = (μικρο)σκουπίδιαlitters/ a litter of puppies/ kittens = γέννα, «φουρνιά» waste = απόβλητα---/ a waste = απώλεια gossip = κουτσομπολιό/ -άgossips/ a gossip = κουτσομπόλης (πρόσωπο) hair = μαλλιάhairs/ a hair = τρίχα holiday = διακοπές, άδειαholidays/ a holiday = γιορτή, αργία, παραθερισμός business = δουλειές, συναλλαγέςbusinesses/ a business = επιχείρηση, εταιρεία score= είκοσι (there is no word for ‘δεκάδα’ in English, so dozen/ score) scores/ a score = βαθμολογία, προκείμενο θέμα, παρτιτούρα
C 2 : Nouns without Singular – Features The opposite of C 1 Nouns because they are always found in plural form in English but we tend to translate with a SINGULAR in Greek. Careful NOT to use a/ an BUT some/ any/ no singular verb “” plural this/ that/ much/ little “” these/ those/ many/ few it/ its “” they/ them/ their(s) Here again, when we want to isolate a certain amount/ number of these, we use a countable word with them, namely, the word ‘pair’.
C 2 : Nouns without Singular II Some of them may have different meanings when used as inflected forms: As PluralAs Inflected Forms clothes = ρούχαcloths/ a cloth = πανί/ ιά (U) cloth (material noun) = ύφασμα glasses = γυαλιάglasses/ a glass = ποτήρι/ -ια (U) glass (material noun) = γυαλί the pools = ΠΡΟΠΟpools/ a pool = λιμνούλα, πισίνα, σύμπραξη, τμήμα (προσωπικού σ’ ετοιμότητα) (& πληθ.) arms = όπλαarms/ an arm = αγκαλιά, μπράτσο, βραχίονας (& πληθ.) scales = ζυγαριάscales/ a scale = διαβάθμιση, κλίμακα, λέπι (& πληθ.) compasses =διαβήτηςcompasses/ a compass = πυξίδα (& πληθ.)
C 2 : Nouns without Singular II (cont’d) As PluralAs Inflected Forms ashes =στάχτεςash (U) = στάχτη (ειδ. τσιγάρου) customs =τελωνείοcustoms/ a custom = έθιμο/ -α, συνήθεια/ ες, (U) custom = πελατεία, κίνηση πελατών, προτίμηση (πελάτη) accounts =λογιστήριοaccounts/ an account = λογαριασμός, αιτιολογία, αφήγηση (& πληθ.) draughts = ντάμα (παιχνίδι)draughts/ a draught = έλξη, γουλιά, ρεύμα (αέρα), πούλι ratings= ακροαματικότητα, τηλεθέασηratings/ a rating = κατάταξη, αξιολόγηση, βαθμοφόρος (& πληθ.) pains = κόποςpains/ a pain = πόνος/ -οι looks = εμφάνιση, παρουσιαστικόlooks/ a look =βλέμμα, ματιά, όψη (& πληθ.), ύφος
The case for cases in English (A) Case of a noun= the form we give it to show how it relates to the other words in the sentence. Case comes from the Latin casus, meaning falling. This is because the nominative is supposed to be the only right ‘case’ (so not a ‘case’ in fact) while the other forms ‘fall from grace’. The only case with some sort of ending today is the Possessive of animate beings (there is also a form for inanimate). The Nominative and Objective are identically the same, except for their position in the sentence, and so is the Vocative, except that it cannot have an article before it and comes before or after a comma.
The case for cases in English (B) The Dative used to be the case of the indirect object but is now the same as the Objective and the Nominative. Only the Pronouns have different forms. So, we have what would look like: CASESSingular Animate Plural Animate Singular Inanimate Plural Inanimate Nominative an/ the artistthe artistsa/ the roomthe rooms Possessive an/the artist’sthe artists’of a/ the roomof the rooms Objective an/ the artistthe artistsa/ the roomthe rooms Vocative (-) artist(-) artists-------
The Plural Form (a) Easily formed by adding an -s at the end of a singular (both animate & inanimate) noun. There are nouns, though, worth noting because: they have the same singular and plural forms: (a) means, (a) series, (a) species, (a) gallows, (a) summons, (a) crossroads they may end in –s but are singular, like: Illnesses/ Subjects/ Sciences/ Sports/ Games: measles, mumps, arthritis, lupus, rabies/ physics, mathematics, economics, politics/ athletics, aerobics, darts
The Plural Form (b) They may NOT end in –s but are plural cattle, police, people, the media they are usually only found in the plural and are treated as such odds, amends, findings, minutes, greens, etc Other than that, the Plural itself has Spelling Rules that deviate from the –s ending as well as some Irregular plural forms to bear in mind.
Spelling Rule 1: noun in –s, -ss, -ch, -sh, -x + es e.g. aliases, classes, breaches, bushes, faxes Exceptions: nouns in -ch not pronounced / t ʃ / e.g. stomachs Rule 2: noun in -o + es e.g. torpedoes, tomatoes Exceptions : 1. (abbreviations of) foreign words e.g. mambos, aficionados, pianos, kilos 2. some nouns with both forms e.g. placebos/ placeboes, mosquitoes/ mosquitos Rule 3: noun in consonant + y + ies e.g. cabbies, cries Exception: vowel + y + s e.g. bays, motorways Rule 4: noun in -f OR -fe + ves e.g. sheaves, halves, midwives Exception: some nouns in -f + s e.g. oafs, chefs, cliffs, safes The Plural Form (c)
Irregular Forms 1 man = άντρας, άνθρωποςmen = άντρες, άνθρωποι woman = γυναίκαwomen = γυναίκες child = παιδίchildren = παιδιά ox = βόδιoxen = βόδια mouse = ποντικόςmice = ποντικοί louse = ψείραlice = ψείρες The Plural Form (d)
Irregular Forms 2 die = ζάριdice = ζάρια foot = πέλμα, πόδιfeet = πέλματα, πόδια tooth = δόντιteeth = δόντια goose = χήναgeese = χήνες person  = πρόσωπο (γραμματικής), άτομο, άνθρωπος people  = άτομα, άνθρωποι The Plural Form (e)
Irregular Forms 3 - Some stay the same: food sheep deer/ reindeer bison fish (& their kinds: cod, trout, salmon, etc), seafood/ shellfish craft (and thus: aircraft, spacecraft) fruit The Plural Form (f)
Foreign Nouns GREEK : -is → -es e.g. crisis → crises -on → -a e.g. criterion → criteria FRENCH : -eau → -eaux e.g. bureau → bureaux (αλλά υπάρχει & ομαλό -s) LATIN : -ix → -ices e.g. index → indices (αλλά & ομαλό (-ix)es) -um → -a e.g. stratum → strata (αλλά & ομαλά: ultimatums) -us → -i/ -era e.g. stimulus → stimuli ΑΛΛΑ genus → genera -a → ae e.g. alga → algae The Plural Form (g)
The Possessive Case (a) We saw that the Possessive case can have two forms: an inanimate possessive [of (a/ an/ the)] an animate possessive ['s/ s'] We’ll see the inanimate possessive later in Compound Nouns. The animate possessive rules are as follows: a) singular noun + 's e.g. Jack’s mobile, the boy’s toy, a teacher’s book
The Possessive Case (b) b) singular noun in –s + 's e.g. the class’s standard, the boss’s rules, James’s briefcase [pronounced / ɪ z/] Exception to Rule b: historical names in –s: apostrophe only (but pronounced / ɪ z/)! e.g. Socrates’ punishment, Oedipus’ cautionary tale c) regular plural noun in –s + ' e.g. the boys’ toys, teachers’ training d) irregular plural noun + 's e.g. some people’s excuses, the children’s computer
The Possessive Case (c) e) 2 (or more) possessors with 1 possession: ʹ s after the last possessor only e.g. Julia and Peter’s poodle f) 2 (or more) possessors with a possession each: ʹ s after each possessor’s name e.g. Julia’s and Peter’s cars SPECIAL USES OF THE ' S POSSESSIVE Exceptionally, the 's possessive can be used with inanimate objects, esp. in:
The Possessive Case (d) distance, measurement & time expressions. [see Adjectives also] e.g. a two miles' walk, a twenty pounds’ worth remote, a ten minutes' interview with poetic licence e.g. the temple’s stones splitting in two with names of unions/ associations etc & place names e.g. Europe’s member-states, UN’s definitive resolutions
Compound Nouns (a) Nouns consisting of two or more words. Note: A) how they are formed: NOUN + NOUN – door knob (instead of the inanimate possessive with of) ADJECTIVE + NOUN – deep-(fat) fryer VERB (- ING ) + NOUN – racing car PREPOSITION + NOUN – downtown NOUN + VERB (& SUFFIX ) – lawn mower NOUN + PREPOSITION – passer-by VERB + PREPOSITION – hangover PREPOSITION + VERB (& ING ) – input FAMILY NOUN + - IN - LAW – mother-in-law
Compound Nouns (b) B) how they are written: ( AS TWO WORDS ) morning sickness ( HYPHENATED ) take-off ( AS ONE WORD ) intake C) what they may be showing: USE : toothbrush LOOKS : whiteboard PERSON : runner-up PROCESS / RESULT : check-out
PACKAGES, SHAPES & MEASUREMENTS BROAD DISTINCT a bit/ lump/ piece/ slice of … a loaf/ kilo of … a glass/ bottle/ pot/ cup/ jug/ mug of … a can/ jar/ bowl/ carton/ tin of … a pack/ packet/ sack/ sachet/ bag/ box/ tub of … a bar of … a rasher of … a drop of … a pinch of … a grain of … a coat of … a tube of … a sheet of … Turning (U) into (C) Nouns (a)