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Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit and herb gardens planted at private residences and public.

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2 Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany [1] during World War I and World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort these gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" — in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made victory gardens become a part of daily life on the home front.vegetablefruitherbgardensUnited StatesUnited KingdomCanadaGermany [1]World War IWorld War IIwar effortmoralehome front In March 1917, Charles Lathrop Pack organized the National War Garden Commission and launched the war garden campaign. DuringWorld War I, food production had fallen dramatically, especially in Europe, where agricultural labor had been recruited into military service and remaining farms devastated by the conflict. Pack conceived the idea that the supply of food could be greatly increased without the use of land and manpower already engaged in agriculture, and without the significant use of transportation facilities needed for the war effort. The campaign promoted the cultivation of available private and public lands, resulting in over five million gardens [2] and foodstuff production exceeding $1.2 billion by the end of the war.Charles Lathrop PackWorld War I [2] Victory gardens were planted in backyards and on apartment- building rooftops, with the occasional vacant lot "commandeered for the war effort!" and put to use as a cornfield or a squash patch. During World War II, sections of lawn were publicly plowed for plots in Hyde Park, London to publicize the movement. In New York City, the lawns around vacant "Riverside" were devoted to victory gardens, as were portions of San Francisco'sGolden Gate Park.Hyde Park, LondonNew York City"Riverside"San Francisco'sGolden Gate Park Since the turn of the 20th to 21st century, there has existed a growing interest in victory gardens. A grassroots campaign promoting such gardens has recently sprung up in the form of new victory gardens in public spaces, victory garden websites and blogs, as well as petitions to both renew a national campaign for the victory garden and to encourage the re-establishment of a victory garden on the White House lawn. In March 2009, First Lady Michelle Obama, planted an 1,100-square-foot (100 m 2 ) "Kitchen Garden" on the White House lawn, the first since Eleanor Roosevelt's, to raise awareness about healthy foodFirst LadyMichelle Obama

3 The Green Revolution: Urban Gardens Transform Traditional Cityscapes By Katy Dutile | Dec 09, :08 AM EDT It's clear there's a growing green transformation in cities throughout the world, with greenery poking out above concrete skyscrapers and apartment balconies. Urban gardens are no longer simply a sign of wealth, they have become a tool in both the fight against global warming and food shortage. As part of the new green trend, many a city rooftop has been renovated into a garden oasis. These gardens aren't there just for looks; rooftops covered with a thin layer of grass or greenery provide insulation to buildings, which in turn lowers heating and cooling costs. This insulation is becoming ever more important in cities like Tokyo, whose concrete skyscrapers trap in additional heat. In fact, under Tokyo regulations enacted in 2001, all large office buildings must dedicate at least 20% of their rooftop space to greenery. On the less legal side of the green revolution, are the "Guerilla Gardeners," who plant and maintain gardens in neglected or abandoned properties in urban areas. Guerilla Gardeners took root in the early 1970's in New York City when artist Liz Christy and friends revitalized a deserted city lot, now known as Bowery Garden. The movement grew as thousands of land reform activists armed themselves with seed bombs under the cover of the night. In Havana Cuba, the urban agriculture movement is not just a trend, it's a necessity. A combination of the Soviet collapse in 1989 and the U.S. trade embargo, primarily on petrol, caused a food crisis within the city. Residents of Havana responded by turning every available space -- empty lots, rooftops, and apartment balconies -- into produce gardens. For Cubans, it's not just urban gardening, it's urban farming - another new buzz word in the green revolution. Today, more than 50% of the produce in Havana is grown locally within the city.


5 About City Farms and Community Gardens What are city farms and community gardens? They are community-managed projects working with people, animals and plants. They range from tiny wildlife gardens to fruit and vegetable plots on housing estates, from community polytunnels to large city farms. They exist mainly in urban areas and are created in response to a lack of access to green space, combined with a desire to encourage strong community relationships and an awareness of gardening and farming. City farms and community gardens are usually set up by local volunteers. Some larger community farms and gardens go on to employ paid workers, while smaller groups rely on dedicated volunteers. Most groups are run by a management committee of local people and some are run as partnerships with local authorities, whilst retaining strong local involvement. These groups provide food-growing activities, training courses, school visits, community allotments and community businesses. In addition, some provide play facilities and sports facilities, and after school and holiday schemes. Benefits of city farms and community gardens Provide productive, creative, safe, high quality open spaces Offer opportunities for people to learn new skills and abilities, either informally or on formal accredited training courses Provide approximately 2,500 training places for adults with learning disabilities each year Add to the economic wealth of the area in which they are situated Employ the equivalent of approximately 500 full-time paid staff and over 15,000 volunteers Have a combined annual turnover of up to £40 million Improve physical and mental health in their communities Provide a valuable tool for bringing people together of different abilities, ages and cultures Aid in community cohesion and community development Are often producers of fresh food Allow many communities contact with real live food (both animals and plants) Attract more than three million visitors and regular users every year - around 50,000 of these visitors are school pupils Why do they matter to people? "It's all about including people, providing a 'growing space' for groups and individuals. People come to the farm because they want to work with animals, but they stay because of the people. - Rob Gayler, Farm Manager, Lambourne End Centre, Essex "We are worried about pollution and litter. People can learn about farms and how to care for them and not be so selfish." - Hirza Mahmood, aged 11 "I felt institutionalised after spending many months in hospital. I was at rock bottom, then I started working at Redhall Walled Garden. It gave me purpose, I no longer dreaded waking up and the sheer physical activity felt good. I learned to laugh again and I have hope. Redhall is a very special place. At Redhall I was part of something not defined in mental health terms. I was a gardener." - Some months after she started at Redhall Trish left hospital and moved into her own flat and has since found a job. Gardening is a joy that recognises no restrictions of race or class or wealth or education: it unites and enriches us all. What community gardeners have in common is their determination and their biggest resource is ingenuity.


7 La Boca is a neighborhood, or barrio of the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. It retains a strong European flavour, with many of its early settlers being from the Italian city of Genoa. t is known among sports fans for La Bombonera the home of Boca Juniors, one of the world's best known football clubs. La Boca is a popular destination for tourists visiting Argentina, with its colourful houses and pedestrian street, the Caminito, where tango artists perform and tango-related memorabilia is sold. Caminito ("little walkway" or "little path" in Spanish) is a street museum and a traditional alley, located in La Boca, a neighborhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Argentine artist Benito Quinquela Martín who lived nearby, painstakingly prepared the walls facing the abandoned street, applying pastel colors.barrioArgentineBuenos AiresEuropeanItalianGenoaLa BomboneraBoca JuniorsworldfootballtouristsCaminitotangoSpanishLa BocaneighborhoodBuenos AiresArgentinaBenito Quinquela Martín

8 The Blue Trees is a social art action. Through colour I am making a personal statement about the spirituality of trees and their importance to our very survival: trees are the lungs of the planet. Colour is a powerful stimulant, a means of altering perception and defining space and time. The fact that blue is a colour that is not naturally identified with trees suggests to the viewer that something unusual, something out of the ordinary has happened. It becomes a magical transformation. In nature colour is used both as a defensive mechanism, a means of protection, and as a mechanism to attract. The Blue Trees attempts to waken a similar response from viewers. It is within this context that the blue denotes sacredness, something reverential. The colour used on the trees is biologically safe pigmented water. As an ephemeral artwork, the colour will naturally degrade and the trees gradually revert to their natural state.

9 american artist jessica stockholder's 'color jam' installation sees a downtown chicago intersection awash with color. the artist envisioned a 'three-dimensional painting', with color spilling out of windows, through doors, and onto the buildings and sidewalks of the crossroads of state and adams. the piece celebrates and demands that the evocative surface of this chicago street corner be expanded. the corner is canvas, stage, pedestal, and frame against which the public can view a parade of shifting color relationships.jessica stockholdercolor jam jam.html

10 H ομάδα Boamistura από τη Μαδρίτη, αποτελείται από πέντε καλλιτέχνες, οι οποίοι έχουν αναπτύξει την εργασία τους σε διάφορους τομείς, από το γκράφιτι και την τοιχογραφία, ως την γραφιστική και την εικονογράφηση. Πρόσφατα ολοκλήρωσαν μια σειρά από «αναμορφωμένους», τρισδιάστατους, χρωματιστούς τοίχους στο εξαιρετικό συμμετοχικό έργο τους στα δρομάκια της Vila Brâsilandia, μια από τις φαβέλες του Σάο Πάολο. Το έργο επικεντρώνεται στα "vecos" και "vielas", δηλαδή στα στενά δρομάκια που είναι οι αληθινές συνιστώσες της εσωτερικής ζωής της κοινότητας και μοιράζεται με τους κατοίκους τη μεταμόρφωση του περιβάλλοντός τους.Boamistura


12 Η χάραξη της πορείας στο λόφο δεν αποφασίστηκε στο σχεδιαστήριο και πάνω σ’ ένα τοπογραφικό σχέδιο, αλλά επί τόπου, μετά από αλλεπάλληλες επισκέψεις του αρχιτέκτονα στο χώρο. O σχεδιασμός των διαδρομών του λόφου στο ριζόχαρτο, είναι αποτέλεσμα της βιωματικής εμπειρίας που είχε ο αρχιτέκτονας με το συγκεκριμένο χώρο. Η τελική χάραξη έγινε πάνω σε ίχνη αρχαίων μονοπατιών και διαμορφώσεων – λαξεύσεων βράχων που υπήρχαν στο χώρο. Ενδιαφέρον έχει ο τρόπος που συνέλλεγε το υλικό του ο αρχιτέκτονας, είτε αυτό αφορούσε αποσπάσματα κειμένων3, είτε διακοσμητικά μοτίβα από τη μακρόχρονη παράδοση του τόπου μας και όχι μόνο4. Η λογική αυτή εκφράζεται έμπρακτα στο συγκεκριμένο έργο, που το υλικό της κατασκευής του προέρχεται από μαζικές κατεδαφίσεις νεοκλασικών, νεοκλασικού τύπου κτιρίων, αθηναϊκών κατοικιών της εποχής, από αρχαία πήλινα, μαρμάρινα ή πέτρινα ευρήματα, χωρίς ιδιαίτερη αρχαιολογική αξία, που βρέθηκαν στην ευρύτερη περιοχή. Μαρμάρινα φουρούσια και δάπεδα μπαλκονιών, πορτοσιές, κυμάτια, ανθέμια, κιλλίβαντες υπερθύρων, καθώς και ακρωτήρια, μαρμάρινες βάσεις και σκαλοπάτια, υπάρχουν διάσπαρτα σε όλη τη διαδρομή και προέρχονται από κατεδαφισμένα νεοκλασικού τύπου κτίρια της εποχής. Πήλινα ενθέματα από κεραμικές στέγες της Πνύκας και από θραύσματα αρχαίων αγγείων, μπορεί κανείς να δει, τόσο στις τοιχοποιίες των κτισμάτων, όσο και στις πλακοστρώσεις. Ένας από τους μαθητές του Πικιώνη, ο Δημήτρης Αντωνακάκης, που δούλεψε στα έργα του Φιλοπάππου, είχε πει: “Εργάζεται μ’ έναν ασυνήθιστο τρόπο. Είναι σχεδόν κάθε μέρα στο εργοτάξιο. Συνεργάζεται με τους μαστόρους, εξηγεί, ρωτάει, σχεδιάζει, στοχάζεται, αποφασίζει… Συγκεντρώνει τα μαρμάρινα και πήλινα κομμάτια από την κατεδαφιζόμενη χωρίς συστολή Αθήνα του 19ου αιώνα, επιχειρώντας ένα γιγάντιο “κολάζ” από τα περασμένα και τα τωρινά 81%CE%B1/t%CE%B1- %CF%83%CF%85%CE%BD%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%B9%CE %BA%CE%AC- %CE%B5%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE %B1-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85-%CE%B4- %CF%80%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%B9%CF%8E%CE%BD%CE%B7- %CF%83%CF%84%CE%BF/

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