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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 32.

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1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 32

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

4 Shelmerdine Chapter The 2 nd (strong) perfect active The term 2 nd (strong) perfect refers to verb which does not add the tense marker -κ- to form its perfect stem. This happens almost always because adding -κ to the verb stem would make it difficult or unpleasant to pronounce.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg perfect indicative active is the fourth principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

7 Shelmerdine Chapter Reduplication The reduplication necessary to form the perfect stem might also be modified for pronunciation purposes. –For a stem beginning with an aspirated consonant, reduplication means only the stop consonant doubles, not the aspiration: θυ-  τεθυ-

8 Shelmerdine Chapter Reduplication The reduplication necessary to form the perfect stem might also be modified for pronunciation purposes. –For a stem beginning with a vowel, reduplication means effectively lengthening the vowel: ἀ-, ἐ-  ἠ- ὀ-  ὠ- ἰ-  ἰ- ὐ-  ὐ-

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

10 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Also for purpose of pronunciation, if the stem of the verb ends in a consonant, some assimilation takes place with the consonant of the ending. Recall the basic relationship of the consonants (Shelmerdine page 2).

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 LabialDentalPalatal unvoiced stop πτκ voiced βδγ aspirated φθχ + σψσξ nasal μνγκ, γγ, γχ, γξ

12 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Middle verb endings start with one of five consonant sounds: –μ (μαι, μην, μεθα, μένος –η –ον) –σ (σαι, σο) –τ (ται, το) –σθ (σθε, σθαι) –ντ (νται, ντο)

13 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Labials and palatals assimilate to the voice and aspiration of the adjacent consonant. Dentals become σ throughout.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 Labial ( π, β, φ ) Dental ( τ, δ, θ ) Palatal ( κ, γ, χ ) + τπτπτστστκτκτ + μμσμσμγμγμ + σθφθφθσθσθχθχθ + σψσξ + ντ---

15 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs The third person plural endings ( νται, ντο ) yield clusters too complicated to be pronounced smoothly (e.g., μντ, σντ, γντ ), especially for a construction used only rarely.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Consequently, Greek substitutes a periphrastic (using multiple words to substitute for a single one) construction: the perfect passive participle + 3 rd person plural form of εἰμί. –For γράφω, for example, instead of *γέγραμνται, we find γεγραμμένοι εἰσι, literally “having been written, they are”  “they have been written.”

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect active participle To form the perfect active participle, to the perfect active stem, add -ώς –υῖα –ός (nominative singular endings) -ν- disappears in the masculine/neuter, -υι- replaces -ουσ- in the feminine, but otherwise identical to the present active.  λελυκώς λελυκυῖα λελυκός κτλ. See page 224 for the full paradigm.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

20 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive participle All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the perfect middle participle, to the perfect middle stem, add –μένος –μένη –μένον  λελυμένος λελυμένη λελυμένον See page 225 for the full paradigm.

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles not in indirect statement You have seen a number of verbs which complete their meaning with an infinitive: –ἐθέλω μένειν. “I want to stay.” –κελεύω σε μένειν. “I order you to stay.” This use of the infinitive is called the “complementary infinitive.”

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles not in indirect statement Some verbs complete their meaning with a circumstantial participle. This use of the participle is called the “supplementary participle” but is really just a technical term for a specialized use of circumstantial participles for verbs that virtually always use them. This section gives examples of three verbs which use supplementary participles: τυγχάνω, λανθάνω and φθάνω.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles not in indirect statement τυγχάνω means “meet by chance” –τυγχάνω τοῦ φύλακος. “I meet the guard by chance” or “I happen to run into the guard.” An accompanying supplementary participle expresses what the subject happens to be doing at the time. –τυγχάνω βαίνων οἴκαδε. “I happen to be walking home.” Notice that English normally expresses this idea with an infinitive (“to walk”) rather than a participle.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles not in indirect statement λανθάνω means “escape notice.” The accompanying supplementary participle expresses what the subject is doing at the time. –λανθάνω τὸν φύλακα φεύγων. “I escape the guard’s notice while I escape”  “I escape without the guard noticing.” –λανθάνω φεύγων. “I escape without being noticed.” Notice that English makes the action of the participle (“escape”) the main verb.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles not in indirect statement φθάνω means “do something before” someone or anyone else. The accompanying supplementary participle expresses what the subject does. –φθάνω τὸν ἵππον ἄγων. “As I lead the horse, I am doing it before anyone else.”  “I lead the horse first.” –φθάνω σε τὸν ἵππον ἄγων. “I lead the horse before you do.” Notice that English makes the action of the participle (“lead”) the main verb.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 for next class (Wednesday, April 27, 2011): Quiz: Vocabulary Chapter 33 Continue Xenophon Reading

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ἀφικόμενοι εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας εἶπον ὅτι οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι προκαλοῦνται μὲν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους εἰς εἰρήνην καὶ συμμαχίαν, ἀνταιτοῦσι δὲ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς νήσου ἄνδρας. οἱ μὲν οὖνΛακεδαιμόνιοι τοσαῦτα εἶπον, νομίζοντες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους, ἤδη πολλάκις νικηθέντας, εἰρήνην ἠδέως δέξεσθαι. οἱ δέ, ἔχοντες τοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, ἔτι πλείονα σχήσειν ἤλπιζον. μάλιστα δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐνῆγε Κλέων, ἀνὴρ δεινότατος· οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ἀνεχώρησαν ἐκ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἄπρακτοι.

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ἀφικόμενοι εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας εἶπον ὅτι οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι προκαλοῦνται μὲν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους εἰς εἰρήνην καὶ συμμαχίαν, ἀνταιτοῦσι δὲ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς νήσου ἄνδρας. οἱ μὲν οὖνΛακεδαιμόνιοι τοσαῦτα εἶπον, νομίζοντες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους, ἤδη πολλάκις νικηθέντας, εἰρήνην ἠδέως δέξεσθαι. οἱ δέ, ἔχοντες τοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, ἔτι πλείονα σχήσειν ἤλπιζον.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 μάλιστα δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐνῆγε Κλέων, ἀνὴρ δεινότατος· οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ἀνεχώρησαν ἐκ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἄπρακτοι.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 ἀφικομένων δὲ αὐτῶν εἰς τὴν Πύλον, αἱ σπονδαὶ εὐθὺς διελύθησαν. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἔτι ἐπολιόρκουν τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ ἡ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων στρατιὰ ἔμενεν ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ. χαλεπὸν δ' ἦν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις τὸ φυλάττειν δι' ἀπορίαν σίτου τε καὶ ὕδατος, πρὸς δὲ τούτῳ μάλιστα ἠθύμουν, ὡς ἐνόμιζον ἐκπολιορκήσειν τοὺς πολεμίους ἡμερῶν ὀλίγων. οἱ δὲ Λακαδαιμόνιοι παρέσχον πολὺ ἀργύριον τοῖς βουλομένοις εἰς τὴν νῆσον εἰσάγειν σῖτόν τε καὶ οἶνον· μάλιστα δὲ εἰσῆγον οἱ Εἵλωτες, λαβόντες ὁπόθεν τύχοιεν καὶ εἰσφέροντες τῆς νυκτός· οὕτω γὰρ ῥᾷον τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἐλάνθανον.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 ἀφικομένων δὲ αὐτῶν εἰς τὴν Πύλον, αἱ σπονδαὶ εὐθὺς διελύθησαν. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἔτι ἐπολιόρκουν τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ ἡ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων στρατιὰ ἔμενεν ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ. χαλεπὸν δ' ἦν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις τὸ φυλάττειν δι' ἀπορίαν σίτου τε καὶ ὕδατος, πρὸς δὲ τούτῳ μάλιστα ἠθύμουν, ὡς ἐνόμιζον ἐκπολιορκήσειν τοὺς πολεμίους ἡμερῶν ὀλίγων.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 οἱ δὲ Λακαδαιμόνιοι παρέσχον πολὺ ἀργύριον τοῖς βουλομένοις εἰς τὴν νῆσον εἰσάγειν σῖτόν τε καὶ οἶνον· μάλιστα δὲ εἰσῆγον οἱ Εἵλωτες, λαβόντες ὁπόθεν τύχοιεν καὶ εἰσφέροντες τῆς νυκτός· οὕτω γὰρ ῥᾷον τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἐλάνθανον.

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 ἐν δὲ ταῖς Ἀθήναις, ὅτε ἠγγέλθη ὅτι σῖτος τοῖς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ εἰσάγεται, οἱ πολῖται ἠπόρουν· οὐ γὰρ ἔλαθεν αὐτοὺς ἡ στρατιὰ οὐκ εὖ πράττουσα. Κλέων δὲ πρῶτον μὲν οὐκ ἔφη τοὺς ἀγγέλλοντας τὰ ἀληθῆ λέγειν, ὕστερον δὲ τῷ Νικίᾳ, στρατηγῷ ὄντι, εἶπεν ὡς ῥᾴδιον ἂν εἴη, εἰ ἄνδρες εἶεν οἱ στρατηγοί, λαβεῖν τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἄν, εἰ ἦρχεν, ἐποίησε τοῦτο. ὁ δὲ Νικίας ἐκέλευε τὸν Κλέωνα ἥντινα στρατιὰν βούλεται λαβόντα ἐπιχειρεῖν ἀντὶ τῶν στρατηγῶν. ὁ δὲ ἀνεχώρει καὶ οὐκ ἔφη αὐτὸς ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνον στρατηγὸν εἷναι. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι, οἷον ὄχλος φιλεῖ ποιεῖν, ὅσῳ μᾶλλον ὁ Κλέων ἀνεχώρει, τόσῳ ἐνῆγον τὸν Νικίαν παραδιδόναι τὴν ἀρχήν καὶ ἐκείνῳ ἐπεβόων πλεῖν· τέλος δὲ ἔφη ὁ Κλέων τοῦτο ποιήσειν καὶ ἡμερῶν εἴκοσιν ἢ ἄξειν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ζῶντας ἢ ἐκεῖ ἀποκτενεῖν.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 ἐν δὲ ταῖς Ἀθήναις, ὅτε ἠγγέλθη ὅτι σῖτος τοῖς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ εἰσάγεται, οἱ πολῖται ἠπόρουν· οὐ γὰρ ἔλαθεν αὐτοὺς ἡ στρατιὰ οὐκ εὖ πράττουσα. Κλέων δὲ πρῶτον μὲν οὐκ ἔφη τοὺς ἀγγέλλοντας τὰ ἀληθῆ λέγειν, ὕστερον δὲ τῷ Νικίᾳ, στρατηγῷ ὄντι, εἶπεν ὡς ῥᾴδιον ἂν εἴη, εἰ ἄνδρες εἶεν οἱ στρατηγοί, λαβεῖν τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἄν, εἰ ἦρχεν, ἐποίησε τοῦτο.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 ὁ δὲ Νικίας ἐκέλευε τὸν Κλέωνα ἥντινα στρατιὰν βούλεται λαβόντα ἐπιχειρεῖν ἀντὶ τῶν στρατηγῶν. ὁ δὲ ἀνεχώρει καὶ οὐκ ἔφη αὐτὸς ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνον στρατηγὸν εἷναι. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι, οἷον ὄχλος φιλεῖ ποιεῖν, ὅσῳ μᾶλλον ὁ Κλέων ἀνεχώρει, τόσῳ ἐνῆγον τὸν Νικίαν παραδιδόναι τὴν ἀρχήν καὶ ἐκείνῳ ἐπεβόων πλεῖν· τέλος δὲ ἔφη ὁ Κλέων τοῦτο ποιήσειν καὶ ἡμερῶν εἴκοσιν ἢ ἄξειν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ζῶντας ἢ ἐκεῖ ἀποκτενεῖν.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter ἐγενήθη δὲ μεσούσης τῆς νυκτὸς καὶ κύριος ἐπάταξεν πᾶν πρωτότοκον ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ ἀπὸ πρωτοτόκου Φαραω τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου ἕως πρωτοτόκου τῆς αἰχμαλωτίδος τῆς ἐν τῷ λάκκῳ καὶ ἕως πρωτοτόκου παντὸς κτήνους. αἰχμαλωτίς -ίδος ἡ prisoner of war ἕως until, to θρόνος –ου ὁ throne κάθημαι sit κτῆνος –ους τό flock κύριος –ου ὁ lord λάκκος –ου ὁ pit μεσόω be in the middle πατάττω strike πρωτό-τοκος –ον first-born

38 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ ἀναστὰς Φαραω νυκτὸς καὶ πάντες οἱ θεράποντες αὐτοῦ καὶ πάντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ ἐγενήθη κραυγὴ μεγάλη ἐν πάσῃ γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ· οὐ γὰρ ἦν οἰκία, ἐν ᾗ οὐκ ἦν ἐν αὐτῇ τεθνηκώς. ἀναστάς (masc nom sg aor part act) < ἀνίστημι stand up θεράπων –ντος ὁ servant κραυγή -ῆς ἡ yell, cry τεθνηκώς (masc nom sg perf part act) < ἀποθνήσκω die

39 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ ἐκάλεσεν Φαραω Μωυσῆν καὶ Ααρων νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀνάστητε καὶ ἐξέλθατε ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ μου καὶ ὑμεῖς καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ Ισραηλ· βαδίζετε καὶ λατρεύσατε κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ ὑμῶν, καθὰ λέγετε· ἀνάστητε (2nd pl aor imp act) < ἀνίστημι stand up βαδίζω walk ἐξέρχομαι –ελεύσομαι -ῆλθον go away καθά as καλέω call κύριος –ου ὁ lord λαός –οῦ ὁ people λατρεύω serve υἱός –οῦ ὁ son

40 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ τὰ πρόβατα καὶ τοὺς βόας ὑμῶν ἀναλαβόντες πορεύεσθε, εὐλογήσατε δὲ κἀμέ. 33 καὶ κατεβιάζοντο οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι τὸν λαὸν σπουδῇ ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῆς γῆς· εἶπαν γὰρ ὅτι Πάντες ἡμεῖς ἀποθνῄσκομεν. (LXX Ἔξοδος ) ἀναλαμβάνω –λήψομαι –έλαβον take up βοῦς βοός ὁ/ἡ bull, cow ἐκβάλλω –βαλῶ -έβαλον throw out εὐλογίζω bless κἀμέ = καὶ ἐμέ καταβιάζω force λαός –οῦ ὁ people πρόβατον –ου τό herd σπουδῇ quickly


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