Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2014) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης.

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2014) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1

2 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη ) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης Αξίας EDI και Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου Εισαγωγή στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο / Επιχειρείν (Electronic Commerce / Business)

3 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Περιεχόμενα Εισαγωγικού Μαθήματος ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ – ΟΡΙΣΜΟΙ - ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ –Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο (ΗΕ) – Θεματολογία –Είδη ΗΕ – Παραδείγματα - Ιστορική Εξέλιξη ΗΕ ΚΙΝΗΤΡΑ - ΠΛΑΙΣΙΟ –Πλαίσιο ΗΕ – Κίνητρα – Πλεονεκτήματα – Μειονεκτήματα / Περιορισμοί –Στοιχεία Αγοράς –Επιχειρηματικά Μοντέλα Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΥΠΟΔΟΜΗ – ΘΕΜΑΤΑ

4 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Εισαγωγή στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο Ορισμοί – Μορφές - Παραδείγματα

5 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Τι είναι το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο? Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) is the process of two or more parties making business transactions via computer and some type of network. Internet.com - The Electronic Commerce Guide: Expert Advice. Mecklermedia Corporation, The business practices and technologies known collectively as Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) include: –Using for business communication –Using Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) with your bank, your suppliers, and your clients

6 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Τι είναι το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο –Establishing a Website to market your products or services –Implementing an Internet-based retail business –Implementing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) with your suppliers and clients –Integrating EDI with your in-house financial systems –Implementing Technical Data Interchange (TDI) to exchange engineering drawings –Implementing compatible E-Commerce practices throughout your acquisition to distribution supply network –Creating a "virtual enterprise" that fully integrates the design, manufacturing, finance, inventory control, distribution and maintenance systems in your business

7 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Τι είναι το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο Ορισμός από το ΣΕΠΕ –Το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο είναι μια νέα επιχειρηματική πρακτική. Σύγχρονες τεχνολογίες και μέθοδοι συνδυάζονται προκειμένου οι επιχειρήσεις να αυξήσουν την αξία τους να ελαχιστοποιήσουν τα κόστη τους και να μεγιστοποιηθεί η δυνατότητα προσέγγισης όσο το δυνατό περισσότερων πελατών.

8 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Τι είναι το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο (Ηλεκτρονικό Επιχειρείν) ? E-COMMERCE και E-BUSINESS ταύτιση (???) –Carrying out business activities that lead to an exchange of value across telecommunications networks E-COMMERCE και E-BUSINESS με διαφορές (???) E-COMMERCE: Digitally enabled commercial transactions between and among organizations and individuals E-BUSINESS: Digitally enabled transactions and processes within a firm involving information systems of the firm

9 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Διαφορές μεταξύ E-BUSINESS και E-COMMERCE e-business συστήματα e-commerce συστήματα Τεχνολογική Υποδομή ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ The Internet ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΤΕΣ ΠΕΛΑΤΕΣ

10 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Διαφορετικές Οπτικές Θεωρήσεις Electronic Commerce is defined from these perspectives –Communications (delivery over computer networks or other electronic means) –Business process (technology to automate business transactions and workflow) –Service (tool to cut service costs while increasing quality and speed of delivery) –Online (buy and sell online – over the Internet) –Collaborations (facilitator for organizational collaboration) –Community (gathering place for community members to learn, transact and collaborate)

11 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Επιστημονικές Θεωρήσεις Computer sciences and Telecommunications Management information systems Consumer behavior and psychology Marketing Finance Economics Accounting and auditing Business law and ethics …

12 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΣΥΝΟΨΗ Ύλης Μαθήματος Το μάθημα εξετάζει: το θέμα του Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου / Ηλεκτρονικού Επιχειρείν και των Δικτύων Προστιθέμενης Αξίας Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) σε συνδυασμό με το Internet. (Ιστορική Αναδρομή και Περιγραφή του Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου - H Μετάβαση από το καθιερωμένο EDI στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο) τις καθιερωμένες μορφές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου για τις οποίες παρουσιάζονται παραδείγματα σε διεθνή περιβάλλοντα και στο εθνικό περιβάλλον

13 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή τα θέματα ασφάλειας και προστασίας των πληροφοριών (μηχανισμοί πρόσβασης και πιστοποίησης, ακεραιότητα και αυθεντικότητα συναλλαγών) Συγκεκριμένα, Ασφάλεια Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου –Θέματα Authentication-Authorization –Η χρήση του SET στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο –Αρχές Πιστοποίησης και Πιστοποιητικά –Τρόποι Προστασίας των Δεδομένων και της Ταυτότητας του Αποστολέα Νομοθεσία και Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο –Νομικό - Κανονιστικό Πλαίσιο, Διεθνής και Ελληνική Εμπειρία Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου σε σημαντικούς χώρους (π.χ. Υγεία, Τράπεζες) Ένα Επιχειρηματικό Μοντέλο που αφορά ολοκληρωμένο παράδειγμα Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου ΣΥΝΟΨΗ (2)

14 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή τη συμβολή των νέων τεχνολογιών στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο (XML, Java, etc.) και του Open source λογισμικού για EC/EB (OpenOffice.org, GNUenterprise.org, κ.λ.π.), καθώς και τη συνεργασία των Grids / Cloud με το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο τη συμβολή των Βάσεων Δεδομένων για εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (Web-based data bases, ηλεκτρονικά σημεία συναλλαγών, διαλειτουργικότητα Βάσεων Δεδομένων, εφαρμογές τηλεσυνεργασίας - κατανεμημένο workflow) τα Περιβάλλοντα Λογισμικού για Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (αυτοματοποίηση συναλλαγών, πρότυπα λογισμικού) --- Αρχιτεκτονικές Ενοποιημένου Λογισμικού (ολοκλήρωση τεχνολογιών) Εξελίξεις του Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου ΣΥΝΟΨΗ (3)

15 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Μορφές EC - Κλασσικές Ταξινομήσεις Business-to-Business (B2B) –e-marketplace member Business-to-Individual / Consumer (B2C) –Online booking & wireless communications, amazon.com Business-to-Employee (B2E) –Online training & banking Business-to-Public Body (e.g., Government) –e-government, Taxes, IKA Consumer-to Consumer (C2C) –ebay.com P2P Peer to Peer –gnutella M-Commerce –Using Wireless digital devices for transaction on the Web

16 Page 15 E-government Concepts for the application of information and communication technologies in the field of public administration, opening new access possibilities – like the internet - for the co-operation of citizens and official institutes. As a practical example we want to point out “Finanz-Online“ from the Austrian Finance Ministry. Today, this system provides professional representatives (economical trustees, notaries, lawyers) electronic access to their clients data. The medium-range objective is to open this service to all citizens. Another example is the possibility to carry out tax payments

17 Cards OperationsCredit Cards Fraud & Risk (Cards & Web Banking) Debit Cards Deposit Products Consumer Loans DEPOSIT S & INVESTMENTS CARDS & LOANS Mortgage Loans Life Insurance Marketing Automation ERGO Customer Insights General Insurance Campaign Management User ExperienceCustomer Loyalty Voice of the Customer INSURANCE & BANC- ASSURANC E Investment Products Affluent Banking “Piraeus VALUE” ING CUSTOMER INTELLIGENCE & EXPERIEN C E E-BANKING - Individual Customers Banking Tailor-made offers Structured Products Lost Wallet Protection

18 easypay.gr Card-not-present Acquiring Phone Banking Alerts ATM Network Debit Card Web BankingMobile BankingCards Online Air-time Top-Up easypay kiosks Virtual Prepaid Card Instant Cash CHANNELS SERVICES SEPA Direct Debitseasypay mobile Public Web Sites Social Media Banner Campaign Optimization Search Engine Marketing Online Reputation Management winbank Direct INTERACTIV E MARKETING : eBusiness & Electronic Banking

19 THE SMARTPHONE-CENTRIC ACCOUNT SMART- PHONE ACCOU NT SMART- PHONE ACCOU NT PHONE BANKING PHONE BANKING ALERT SMS BANKING ONE-TIME PASSWORD LOAD AIR-TIME LOAD AIR-TIME BANKING & TRADING BANKING & TRADING HELP DESK HELP DESK BILL PAYMENT SCAN BILL & PAY BILL PAYMENT SCAN BILL & PAY CASH WITHDRAWA L CASH WITHDRAWA L SEND MONEY SEND MONEY LOCATE ATM (AUGMENTED REALITY) LOCATE ATM (AUGMENTED REALITY) (NFC) (NFC) talk send text touch talk send text get text get text video touch video tap

20 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Προμηθευτής Γ Η επιχείρηση σας Προμηθευτής Α Προμηθευτής Β ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Συστατικά Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου ΑνθρώπινοΔυναμικό Πελάτες

21 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Προμηθευτής Γ Η επιχείρηση σας Προμηθευτής Α Προμηθευτής Β ΑνθρώπινοΔυναμικό Πελάτες Β2E Enterprise (Intranet) Portals ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Συστατικά Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου Internal Procurement

22 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Προμηθευτής Γ Η επιχείρηση σας Προμηθευτής Α Προμηθευτής Β ΑνθρώπινοΔυναμικό Β2C Consumer (Internet) Portals Πελάτες ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Συστατικά Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου

23 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Προμηθευτής Γ Η επιχείρηση σας Προμηθευτής Α Προμηθευτής Β ΑνθρώπινοΔυναμικό Πελάτες Β2B Procurement (Extranet) Portals Β2B ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Συστατικά Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου

24 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Στοιχεία Ολοκλήρωσης Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου ElementINTERNETEXTRANETINTRANET E-Commerce Type Business-to- Consumer Business-to- Business Internal Procurement AccessUnrestrictedRestricted SecurityMinimalFirewalls & Restricted Access Payment Method Credit CardPredefined Credit Agreement Within Business Charges

25 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: Ενδεικτικά QANTAS Airways –B2B, B2C, B2E - όλα amazon.com –B2C Ηλεκτρονικές Αγορές (E-Marketplaces) –yassas.com, cosmoone.gr, onianet.gr, …

26 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: QANTAS Airways Business-to-business (B2B) –E-marketplace member Business-to-customer (B2C): –Online booking & wireless communications Business-to-employee (B2E): –Online training & banking

27 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑTA: QANTAS Airways B2B Business-to-business (B2B) –E-marketplace member: Joined Airnew Co. (links major airlines with suppliers) Fuel Fuel services Light maintenance services Catering

28 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑTA: QANTAS Airways B2C and B2E Business-to-customer (B2C): –Online booking –Wireless communications Business-to-employee (B2E): –Online training –Online banking

29 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: Γιατί το Β2C προσφέρει πλεονεκτήματα Cost/ Sweate r Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer $48.50 $40.34 $20.45

30 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) B2C business model where customers look for a: –Low price –Fast shipment –Good return policy –Helpful customer service Largest Bookstore in the world Offers millions of items –Books and music –DVDs and videos –Toys and video games –Electronics and software –Home improvement products

31 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) Started business in 1995 –Sales 1996 = $15.7 million (αλλά, $ 6.24 million losses!) 1999 – $1.6 billion (αλλά, big loans and losses) Share value $ = $1.8 billion (αλλά, $ 1.4 billion losses!!!) Share value $ = $ 4 billion (για πρώτη φορά, ΚΕΡΔΗ!) Share value $25 –Products 1999 = 5 million titles 2000 = 13 million books, music, DVD/video titles Auctions –Hosts and operates auctions for individuals and small businesses –zShops, Amazon marketplace, Amazon payment processing Provide the opportunity for small businesses to develop custom storefront Storefronts are supported by Amazon’s backend order fulfillment processing

32 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) –Easy browsing and searching –Useful product information –Reviews, recommendations, and personalization Broad selection and low prices Secure payment system (1-Click order technology) Gifts department Online community Secured payments Features

33 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) Financial performance –Overall losses rather than profits up to 2002 –Ability to move into new areas of business should move them toward profitability, but makes money from books –High level of customer service and customer loyalty adds value Strategy for Profitability (after 2002) –Cut Prices –Offer free shipping –Lower Costs of operation significantly (while leveraging the investment Infrastructure created and consumer brands)

34 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) Diversification through business alliances –Online sale of cars - greenlight.com –Online health and beauty aids - drugstore.com –Wireless phones – multiple business partners –Toys - ToysrUs.com

35 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: AMAZON.COM (Β2C) Customer relationship management –Creates interesting and informative front-end –Highly automated and efficient back-end support –Personalized service Return customers are welcomed back by name Customer wish lists available s customers purchase recommendations based on their purchasing history

36 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: Αγορά του Β2C - Μερικά χαρακτηριστικά Επιτυχίας Characteristics of goods leading to high online sales volumes –Brand recognition and guarantees –Digitized products –Frequently purchased, inexpensive items –Well-known items with standard specifications

37 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: Ηλεκτρονική Αγορά (Electronic Marketplace) Marketplace: 3 main objectives –Match buyers and sellers –Facilitate exchange of information, goods, services, payments (transactions) –Provide institutional infrastructure enabling efficient functioning of the market EC in the marketplace –Increased efficiencies –Decreased cost of executing business functions

38 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: Marketplaces --- Ηλεκτρονικές Αγορές

39 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗ ΑΓΟΡΑ

40 39 Net Market Publish Supply & Demand Connect Buyers To Sellers Enable Price Discovery Vet Buyers at Point of Sale Commit Transactions Finalize & Generate Order Track & Manage Orders Support Members Report Market Metrics Enable Decision Support Ensure Market Trust & Satisfaction Manage Content Provide Community Services Qualify New Members Manage Member Entitlements & Access Control Net Market Maker Ship and Receive Goods Check Order Status Make & Receive Payment Access & Contribute Content Access Community Services Enroll and Register Members Specify or Locate Items to Sell & Buy Browse Market Establish Price for Goods and Services Establish Transaction Terms &Conditions Provide Content Enable Logistics Manage Credit & Risk Enable Payment Value-Added Service Providers Conceptual Architecture for Net Markets

41 40 User & System Proxies (Future) Application Service Components Administration Market Member Access: Market ParticipantsParticipant Info. Systems Platform Technology Map for Net Markets

42 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: : B2B Ολοκλήρωση (από παρουσιάσεις της Microsoft)

43 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: : B2B Ολοκλήρωση (από παρουσιάσεις της Microsoft)

44 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ: : B2B Ολοκλήρωση (από παρουσιάσεις της Microsoft)

45 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Ιστορική Εξέλιξη Προπομποί του E-Commerce –Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) business-to-business e-commerce for the delivery of structured business messages (since 1980) Standards: –ANSI X.12 –EDIFACT (ISO) –UN / GTDI (United Nations for Tradacom - an EDI net) –SWIFT (propietary by 3600 financial institutions) –CALS (Department of Defense - USA) – X.400 Standard cc:mail (de facto for business-to-business)

46 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Ιστορική Εξέλιξη EFT – Electronic Fund Transfer –Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) widespread for information and cash delivery –EPOS and EFTPOS electronic point-of-sale data used by retailers funds transfer methods supported (credit cards, digital money, etc.) VIDEOTEX –Minitel in FRANCE, BTX in GERMANY, Kapatel in Greece Internet Commerce –following major technological developments

47 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Κίνητρα για Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο Χαρακτηριστικά και Μοντέλα

48 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή EC: ΟΙ 7 ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΕΣ ΙΔΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ Ubiquity – Internet / Web Technology is everywhere ! Global Reach – The Technology reaches everywhere Universal Standards – Internet Standards Richness – Video, Audio, Text Messages Interactivity – The Technology works through interaction with the User Information Density – Reduction of information costs while quality is increased Personalization / Customization – The Technology allows personalized messages delivered to individuals / groups

49 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Τι περιμένουν να κερδίσουν οι ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΕΣ από το Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο? Streamlining Procurement Processes Decrease costs Decrease length of production cycles Achieve closer customer - vendor relationship Enhance Competitiveness and Economic Growth Enable Enterprises to Conduct Business with distant partners - Expand Marketplace Empower Small Businesses

50 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Κίνητρα για Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο DRIVERS for the Uptake of E-Commerce –Time-to-market fast supply-chain –Customer Relationships loyal, happy customers –Reduced Costs no storage, no intermediaries –Access to the Global Market

51 Στοιχεία κλειδιά για το EC Ασφαλείς πληρωμές Προστασία Αντιγράφων Πολυγλωσσισμός Εκπαίδευση Διαλειτουργικότητα/ Διασυνδεσιμότητα Νομικό και Οικονομικό Πλαίσιο Πληροφόρηση/καλή πρακτική Ψηφιακές Υπογραφές Πιστοποιητικά (Certificates) Τήρηση Απορρήτου Ασφάλεια Δεδομένων Προμήθεια Εμπορικές Υπηρεσίες Τυποποίηση Ιδιοκτησία (Ownership)

52 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Περιορισμοί Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου NON-TECHNICAL - Critical Factors for Success –Security and Privacy concerns –Acceptance of new payment methods (TRUST) –Cost to business and consumers – small numbers of buyers and sellers –Lack of mature methodology and measuring the benefits –Legal and regulatory issues IPR, consumer protection, security regulation, content regulation, cross- border regulation, etc) –Linguistic and cultural issues

53 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Περιορισμοί Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου TECHNICAL - Critical Factors for Success –Lack of “sufficient” Security mechanisms Encryption and other security technologies (firewalls, smart cards, protocols, etc.) –Lack of universally accepted standards for quality, reliability –Availability of infrastructure and bandwidth –Difficulties in integrating the Internet and EC software to some existing (especially legacy) applications and databases –Special WEB servers (additional to Network servers) are needed – some are STATELESS (have no memory) and NON-DYNAMIC –Internet accessibility

54 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Η Εμπλοκή στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο είναι Δύσκολη και έχει μεγάλο Κόστος –positioning for e-commerce implementing an Intranet (internal communications for a good infrastructure) links with new suppliers adapting the legacy systems to a new e-commerce oriented environment –re-engineering the business adapt organization processes for an e-commerce environment (e.g., changing or even deleting them) –re-defining the business outsourcing (even core activities!) virtual companies

55 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΣΤΑΔΙΑ ΠΡΟΣΑΡΜΟΓΗΣ στο e-commerce

56 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΣΤΑΔΙΑ ΠΡΟΣΑΡΜΟΓΗΣ στο e-commerce

57 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Η Ανάπτυξη της Αγοράς Προοπτική και Εικόνα από το Billion** By Billion* Now Source: Yankee Group, IDC, Forrester Research The Real Revenue Growth in E-Commerce has not yet happened (1997) * 22% from consumer transactions and 78% from business-to-business transactions. ** A more conservative estimation of “only” 294 billion in revenue by 2002, was given by the West Chester Electronic Commerce Resource Center. 8.8% out of the revenue from consumer transactions and 91.2% from business-to-business transactions.

58 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Ένα Διάλλειμα στην Ανάπτυξη του Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου Η κατάρρευση των dot.com – από το 1999 –Μόνο το 10% των dot.com εταιρειών του 1999 (ήταν περίπου ) υπάρχουν σήμερα! –Χρηματιστηριακές Φούσκες (διεθνώς) Αισιοδοξία πάλι μετά το , με κέρδη των εταιρειών Internet E-commerce είναι πολύ περισσότερο από αποτυχίες των dot.com – είναι βασικά ο τρόπος με τον οποίο οι σύγχρονες επιχειρήσεις και οργανισμοί ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΟΥΝ

59 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή To NEO (?) Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο Από ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΥΧΙΑ σε ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΥΧΙΑ Από ENTERPRENEURIAL ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΕΣ σε ΜΕΓΑΛΕΣ ΚΛΑΣΣΙΚΕΣ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΕΣ Σταθερότερο και αυστηρότερο Νομικό / Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο Νέες Αγορές που δεν είναι «περιορισμένες»

60 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Η Ανάπτυξη της Αγοράς Μερικά Νέα Νούμερα (Παγκοσμίως) –Internet χρήστες έφτασαν τους 1000 Μ το 2010 –50% από αυτούς χρησιμοποιούν e-commerce –Μέχρι το τέλος του 2010 ο συνολικός τζίρος B2B ήταν 10 trillion $ (eMarketer) –Συνολικός τζίρος B2B και online shopping σε όλο τον Κόσμο το 2010 ήταν μεταξύ 12 και 14 trillion $ –Συνολικός τζίρος B2C και online shopping σε όλο τον Κόσμο το 2010 ήταν μεταξύ 2 και 3 billion $

61 EMΠ 60 The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce Defining characteristics of the first wave: –Dominant influence of U.S. businesses –Extensive use of the English language –Many new companies started with outside investor money –Unstructured use of –Over-reliance on advertising as a revenue source

62 ΕΜΠ 61 The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce (continued) Second wave: –Global enterprises in many countries are participating in electronic commerce –Established companies fund electronic commerce initiatives with their own capital –Customized strategies are now integral to customer contact

63 ΕΜΠ 62 Business Models, Revenue Models, and Business Processes Business model –A set of processes that combine to yield a profit Revenue model –A specific collection of business processes used to: Identify customers Market to those customers Generate sales to those customers

64 ΕΜΠ 63 Role of Merchandising Merchandising –Combination of store design, layout, and product display knowledge

65 ΕΜΠ 64 Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce Commodity item –Hard to distinguish from the same products or services provided by other sellers –Features have become standardized and well known

66 ΕΜΠ 65 Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce (continued) Shipping profile –Collection of attributes that affect how easily a product can be packaged and delivered High value-to-weight ratio –Can make overall shipping cost a small fraction of the selling price

67 ΕΜΠ 66 Advantages of Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce can increase sales and decrease costs If advertising is done well on the Web, it can get a firm’s promotional message out to potential customers in every country Using e-commerce sales support and order- taking processes, a business can: –Reduce costs of handling sales inquiries –Provide price quotes

68 ΕΜΠ 67 Advantages of Electronic Commerce (continued) It increases purchasing opportunities for buyers Negotiating price and delivery terms is easier The following cost less to issue and arrive securely and quickly: –Electronic payments of tax refunds –Public retirement –Welfare support

69 ΕΜΠ 68 Disadvantages of Electronic Commerce Perishable grocery products are much harder to sell online It is difficult to: –Calculate return on investment –Integrate existing databases and transaction- processing software into software that enables e-commerce Cultural and legal obstacles also exist

70 ΕΜΠ 69 Economic Forces and Electronic Commerce Economics –Study of how people allocate scarce resources Two conditions of a market –Potential sellers of a good come into contact with potential buyers –A medium of exchange is available

71 ΕΜΠ 70 Transaction Costs Transaction costs are the total costs that a buyer and seller incur Significant components of transaction costs: –Cost of information search and acquisition –Investment of the seller in equipment or in the hiring of skilled employees to supply products or services to the buyer

72 ΕΜΠ 71 Using Electronic Commerce to Reduce Transaction Costs Businesses and individuals can use electronic commerce to reduce transaction costs by: –Improving the flow of information –Increasing coordination of actions

73 ΕΜΠ 72 Network Economic Structures Network economic structures –Neither a market nor a hierarchy –Companies coordinate their strategies, resources, and skill sets by forming long-term, stable relationships with other companies and individuals based on shared purposes Strategic alliances (strategic partnerships) –Relationships created within the network economic structure

74 ΕΜΠ 73 Network Economic Structures (continued) Virtual companies –Strategic alliances that occur between or among companies operating on the Internet Strategic partners –Entities that come together as a team for a specific project or activity

75 ΕΜΠ 74 Network Effects Law of diminishing returns –Most activities yield less value as the amount of consumption increases Network effect –As more people or organizations participate in a network, the value of the network to each participant increases

76 ΕΜΠ 75 Identifying Electronic Commerce Opportunities Firm –Multiple business units owned by a common set of shareholders Industry –Multiple firms that sell similar products to similar customers

77 ΕΜΠ 76 Strategic Business Unit Value Chains Value chain –A way of organizing the activities that each strategic business unit undertakes Primary activities include: –Designing, producing, promoting, marketing, delivering, and supporting the products or services it sells Supporting activities include: –Human resource management and purchasing

78 ΕΜΠ 77

79 ΕΜΠ 78 Industry Value Chains Value system –Larger stream of activities into which a particular business unit’s value chain is embedded –Also referred to as industry value chain

80 ΕΜΠ 79

81 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Supply-Chain Management

82 ΕΜΠ 81 SWOT Analysis: Evaluating Business Unit Opportunities In SWOT analysis: –An analyst first looks into the business unit to identify its strengths and weaknesses –The analyst then reviews the operating environment and identifies opportunities and threats

83 ΕΜΠ 82

84 ΕΜΠ 83

85 ΕΜΠ 84 International Nature of Electronic Commerce Companies with established reputations: –Often create trust by ensuring that customers know who they are –Can rely on their established brand names to create trust on the Web Customers’ inherent lack of trust in “strangers” on the Web is logical and to be expected

86 ΕΜΠ 85 Language Issues To do business effectively in other cultures a business must adapt to those cultures Researchers have found that customers are more likely to buy products and services from Web sites in their own language Localization –Translation that considers multiple elements of the local environment

87 ΕΜΠ 86 Culture Issues An important element of business trust is anticipating how the other party to a transaction will act in specific circumstances Culture: –Combination of language and customs –Varies across national boundaries –Varies across regions within nations

88 ΕΜΠ 87

89 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Επιχειρηματικά Μοντέλα (Business Models) Many EC Business Models today are –An online version of traditional models –An extension of physical businesses that are able to reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction –They follow a vertical and rigid supply chain

90 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή BUSINESS MODELS -- Emerging Virtual Communities / Companies and markets –a consortium of companies build on each others’ businesses to exploit opportunities Open buyer centric markets –comparison shopping Coalition and outsourcing –e.g. in REAL ESTATE: brokers, banks, escrow (εγγυητές), lawyers (for title inspection)

91 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή VIRTUAL STOREFRONT – E-TAILER - ONLINE DIRECT MARKETING: sells goods, services on-line (amazon, Virtual Vineyards,..) PORTALS: collects catalogues characterizing a huge amount of information (large number of hyperlinks as entrance to the WWW – vertical and horizontal portals) yahoo.com, AOL.com, MSN.com, in.gr, … VORTALS: vertical / specialized portals sailnet.com MARKETPLACE CONCENTRATOR: concentrates information from several providers InsureMarket, DealerNet, etc.) INFORMATION BROKER / TRUST BROKER: provides product, pricing, availability information Auto-by-Tel, PartNet, etc) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

92 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή TRANSACTION BROKER: buyers view rates, terms from various sources (E-Trade, Ameritrade, hotels.com, expedia.com, …) ELECTRONIC CLEARINGHOUSE: auction-like setting, products, prices, change in response to demand (bid.com, OnSale.com, eBay, etc.) REVERSE AUCTION –ELECTRONIC TENDERING SYSTEMS: buyer sets price, submits to multiple sellers (gxs.com) NAME YOUR OWN PRICE – buyer sets the price he wants to pay and the model matches the request with a supplier (priceline.com) FIND THE BEST PRICE: buyer specifies a need – an intermediary locates the best price (hotwire.com, eloan.com) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

93 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή DIGITAL PRODUCT DELIVERY: sell, download software, other digital products (dell.com, SonicNet, Build-a-Card, etc.) CONTENT PROVIDER: creates revenue through providing client for a fee, and advertising (Tripod, Wall Street Journal, cnn.com etc.) ON-LINE SERVICE PROVIDER: provides service, support for hardware, software products (lawinfo.com, CyberMedia, Tune Up, mybconsulting.com, etc.) COMMUNITY PROVIDER: sites for individuals to come together (about.com, oxygen.com, epinions.com, …) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

94 Page 93 Travel portals The wide field of leisure plays a very important role in our society, the demand for travelling is accordingly high. By now, not only the big travel agencies offer their services online, even quite small companies enable online booking. Some travels can only be booked through the internet: See also

95 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Τέσσερις Τρόποι για Κέρδη από τις Εταιρείες Internet ΔΙΑΦΗΜΙΣΗ –yahoo.com ΣΥΝΔΡΟΜΗ –WSJ.com, sportsline.com ΠΟΣΟΣΤΟ ΔΟΣΟΛΗΨΙΑΣ –ebay.com, e-trade.com ΠΩΛΗΣΕΙΣ –amazon.com, gap.com, sears.com, …

96 Page 95 Link collection (a-e)

97 Page 96 Link collection (f-z)

98 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΕΣ ΥΠΟΔΟΜΕΣ

99 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΕΝΑ ΠΛΑΙΣΙΟ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΟΥ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΟΥ (Turban and King)

100 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES –high performance, interoperability, protocols, support for interactivity - interoperability, teleconferencing, etc. Two main methods used for transferring e-commerce data: –VAN (Value Added Networks) –Internet The WWW –hypertext, markup languages (SGML, HTML, XML, …) –Web servers, clients, browsers, search engines, intelligent agents, chat, streaming media…

101 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή IDENTIFICATION - ENCRYPTION –privacy, security, trust, encryption, e-signatures, smartcards, …. PAYMENT SYSTEMS –Online payment (digital cash, credit accounts, digital wallets, credit cards, e-check, ebpp, …) MULTIMEDIA –vast amount of multimedia data, image exchange, compression, user interfaces EDI --- BUSINESS MODELS –(financial) data interchange, business processes, business re-engineering, electronic money, regulation, etc. ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES (2)

102 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή SHARED DATABASES –distributed - autonomous and heterogeneous information sources, web databases, electronic catalogues, directories, middleware, servers, etc. CO-OPERATIVE APPLICATIONS –CSCW, collaborative work, interoperability, intelligent agents, workflows, LEGAL and REGULATORY ISSUES –Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), electronic copyright, –Consumer Protection --- Linguistic and Cultural Issues –Regulation for: Security, Content, Cross-Border ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES (3)

103 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Data sources E-Commerce involves massive data transfer among systems. This data is stored, in an electronic form, in data sources. There are several ways to classify the different types of data sources that might participate in the provision of data in E-Commerce: –Structure of the information source: Fully structured data, e.g. databases Semi-structured data, e.g, HTML files, source code files Unstructured data, e.g. books in electronic form –Basic operations provided for each source: Query facility: fetch all items x where P(x) Similarity-based retrieval: fetch items x that are similar to y Classification: classify x near similar items

104 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Structured data database schemaA database is a collection of data items, whose structure is defined by a schema (e.g., a relational schema). Database Management System DBMSA Database Management System (DBMS) is a generic system, which supports the construction and access of a database; in particular: –sets up a scalable implementation data model –provides a data model (e.g., a relational data model) for defining the schema of a database –provides a basic set of operations for accessing and updating the database (e.g., relational algebra). –offers a variety of other services, such as concurrency control and error recovery.

105 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Semi-structured data Here data have some structure, for example, –HTML/DHTML/XML / RDF files –HTML/DHTML/XML / RDF files -- consist of text interleaved with HTML formatting commands –Literature files –Literature files -- have a syntax for references, but the “atoms” of that syntax, such as paper titles, are text –Source code files –Source code files -- based on the syntax of some programming language –Electronic Data Interchange transmission –Electronic Data Interchange transmission -- based on standards.

106 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Any GUI, typically a Web page, that supports online shopping, ordering and payment capabilities –A gateway to a digital version of the business itself (more than a list of products) –Presents a new medium with new capabilities E-catalogs --- Definition

107 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs -- TYPES Stand-alone –Independent Web site, primarily for online retailing (e.g., Amazon) E-mall –Collection of catalogs for different merchants (e.g., Internet shopping network) Embedded –Part of a large corporate web site –Primarily for non-retail (e.g., marketing, customer support) –Corporations using it include HP, Bank of America, etc.

108 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs vs. Traditional catalogs Interactivity –Allow two-way communication channel between Business and Consumer in real time –Allow for the development of new and closer relationships between Business and Consumer Dynamic Updating Capabilities –quickly adapt to market conditions by adapting prices, repackaging, re-channeling, etc. Global Presence –SMEs can enter the global E-marketplace transcending traditional limitations

109 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs -- Functional Features Content –SCOPE: products, services, pricing info, detailed descriptions, links to other resources, etc. –SEARCH and FILTERING Presentation –LAYOUT: spatial arrangement of the catalog and MM use –UI and HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Back-end Processing –Level of Integration (with Company’s databases and legacy systems, with financial institutions) and Interoperability Usage Tracking –Data Warehousing and Data Mining Computational Services –Scalability and Efficiency

110 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Interoperable Commerce HTML, CORBA, EDI –All suffer from one or more of the following limitations: too expensive, too dumb, a private language between 2 partners, a formatting language Need an OPEN framework for Electronic Commerce –Standards is one approach - others include: negotiation protocols, mappings from one to another Need to have a common means to EXCHANGE information between applications required to support EC process flow and fully utilize such components as Databases, EDI, Browsers, Agents, Catalogs, etc... –Users need to be able to search for products using catalogs from multiple suppliers

111 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Applications: –Inf. brokers –Neg. brokers Architecture: –Controller –WfMS –CoopWARE Infrastructure: –EDI –HTTP –VAN Data mgmt: –DBMS Communication: –HTML TCP/IP –flat files UNIX sockets Architecture for Data Integration

112 The E-Enterprise Framework Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή

113 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή WEB HOSTING SERVICES: provides large servers for Web sites of fee-paying customer ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM: using Web for electronic funds transfers, credit, smart & debit cards ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

114 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ICAT: on-line catalog shopping, order placement (Icat) NET.COMMERCE: merchant server supporting Secure Electronic Transactions protocol (IBM) MerchantXpert:: search tools, order management, tax, payment, logistics modules (Netscape) Microsoft - Commerce Server 2000 Electronic Commerce Servers

115 Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή OPEN MARKET TRANSACT: customer authentication, order & payment processing, tax, multi-language customer service (Open Market) INTERNET COMMERCE SERVER: integrates orders, inventory, customer service, payments (Oracle) Electronic Commerce Services


Κατέβασμα ppt "Ε.Μ.Π. Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2014) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης."

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Διαφημίσεις Google