Nouns (of the 2 nd declension) names person, place, thing, quality or idea John 1 “12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name: 13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.” –blood is a noun –Greek aimatwn (Plural genitive noun) English – mass noun (e.g. sugar) Literally “bloods” –Indicates family lineage
Distinctive Features Of A Noun Case –Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, **Vocative** Gender –Masculine, Feminine, neuter Number –Singular, plural In Greek: Declensions –1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd (Refers to a group)
Case Has to do with the function of the noun as it relates to the verb or to other parts of a sentence ( Essentials Of New Testament Greek by Ray Summers ) –Paul sent the churches a letter. –The churched sent Paul a letter. English – subject + verb + IO + DO Greek – word order not as critical to determine the subject of the sentence. –will be known by its ending
Examples 1.Men see apostles. 1.blepou;si a[nqrwpoi ajpo;stolouV. 2.The wisdom of men. 2. ejdw:ken a[nqrwpoiV doma;ta. 3.He gave gifts to men. 3. hJ sofi;a a[nqrwpwv. 4.Apostles see men. 4. a[nqrwpous blepou;si ajpo;stoloi.
Nominative Case Indicates subject of the sentence. Naming case E.g. John saw Jesus coming to him. oV, oi
Genitive Case The case which describes. It specifies or qualifies. Often thought of as the case of possession. Often translated with use of word “of”. E.g. The disciples of John fasted.
Dative Case Case which points out the person to, or for, whom something is done. Most often associated with the indirect object. Often translated with word “to” or “for”. E.g. Jesus was speaking words of truth to the crowd.
Accusative Case “Receives” the action of the verb or that which is directly affected by the action of the verb. Known as the direct object. Relative to the verb, it answers the question “what?” E.g. Jesus was speaking words of truth to the crowd.
Vocative Case Not widely used The case of direct address E.g. Lord have mercy on us.
Gender Method of classification. Types: Masculine, Feminine, Neuter English – Nouns classified on basis of natural gender. Greek – generally follows natural gender w/ living things. Things, qualities, ideas are not necessarily neuter Recognizing gender is important.
Endings for Nouns of 2 nd Declension Masculine & Feminine Neuter SingularPluralSingularPlural Nom oVoiona Gen ouwnouwvn Dat w/oiVw/oiV Acc onouVona Voc eoiona
Articles a, an, the noun marker or determiner an adjective “the” is definite – points to a specific thing “a” or “an” is indefinite – general information Greek has no indefinite article
Articles anqrwpoV blepei apostolon. A man sees an apostle. oJ anqrwpos blepei ton apostolon. The man sees the apostle.