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4.3.1. Algebraic Symbolism And Technique, ΑΘΡΟΙΣΜΑ ΕΚΘΕΤΩΝ.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "4.3.1. Algebraic Symbolism And Technique, ΑΘΡΟΙΣΜΑ ΕΚΘΕΤΩΝ."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Algebraic Symbolism And Technique, ΑΘΡΟΙΣΜΑ ΕΚΘΕΤΩΝ

2 Algebraic Symbolism And Technique, ΓΙΝΟΜΕΝΟ ΕΚΘΕΤΩΝ

3 PACIOLI, PLUS and MINUS

4 (100/x) +100/(x+5) = (100(x+5) + 100x )/x(x+5)= = (100x + 100* x)/(x 2 +5x)

5

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7 Algebraic Symbolism And Technique, Rule of Signs Similarly, the rules of signs were also written out in words and even justified, here in a late fourteenth-century manuscript by an unknown author:

8 (3+ 3/4 )  (3+ 3/4 ) = (4- 1/4)  (4- 1/4) (3+ 3/4 )  (3+ 3/4 )= /16 (4- 1/4)  (4- 1/4) = 4  4 +4  (-1/4) +4  (-1/4) + (-1/4)  (-1/4) =14 +(-1/4)  (-1/4) (x-a)(y-b) = (x+(-a))(y+(-b))=xy-xb-ay + (-a)(-b) (x-a)(y-b)= x(y-b)-a(y-b)=xy-xb-(ay-ab)=xy-xb-ay-(-ab)

9 EULER, ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA, c. 1765, Elements of Algebra is an elementary mathematics textbook written by mathematician Leonhard Euler and originally published in 1765 in German. Elements of Algebra is one of the earliest books to set out algebra in the modern form we would recognize today (another early book being Elements of Algebra by Nicholas Saunderson, published in 1740), and is one of Euler's few writings, along with Letters to a German Princess, that are accessible to the general public. Written in numbered paragraphs as was common practice till the 19th century, Elements begins with the definition of mathematics and builds on the fundamental operations of arithmetic and number systems, and gradually moves towards more abstract topics. In 1771, Joseph-Louis Lagrange published an addendum titled Additions to Euler's Elements of Algebra, which featured a number of important mathematical results. The original German title of the book was Vollständige Anleitung zur Algebra, which literally translates to Complete Instruction to Algebra.elementary mathematicsLeonhard EulerNicholas SaundersonLetters to a German PrincessJoseph-Louis Lagrange

10 Two English translations are now extant, one by John Hewlett (1822), and the other, which is translated to English from a French translation of the book, by Charles Tayler (1824). ΒΛΕΠΕ ΚΑΙ

11 MATHGROUND, “ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΣΗ” ? textbook/ textbook/ « The Elements of Algebra contains many important early results in mathematical analysis; for example, it contains Euler’s original proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem for the special case of n = 3.»

12 Euler's Elements of Algebra, multiplication PART 1, ΑRΤ. 32

13 Euler's Elements of Algebra, multiplication PART 1, ΑRΤ. 33, MINUS TIMES MINUS

14 Euler's Elements of Algebra, Surd Quantities or INCOMMENSURABLE, PART 1, ΑRΤ. 128

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16 Essays on the Theory of Numbers, by Richard Dedekind ΣΥΓΚΡΟΥΣΗ ΓΙΓΑΝΤΩΝ ?

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18 RULE OF RADICALS PLHROFORIES GENIKA, THE ORIGIN OF THE PROBLEMS IN EULER’S ALGEBRA The Elementary Mathematical Works of Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) Paul Yiu Department of Mathematics, Euler’s “Mistake”?The Radical Product Rule in Historical Perspective https://webspace.utexas.edu/aam829/1/m/Euler_files/EulerMonthly.pdf HISTORICAL CONFLICTS AND SUBTLETIES WITH THE SIGN IN TEXTBOOKS, Euler’s Elements of Algebra Gaps in Logic CONFLICTS WITH THE RADICAL SIGN. A CASE STUDY WITH PATRICIA, A tale of two curricula: Euler's algebra text book,

19 Of Impossible, or Imaginary Quantities, which arise from the same source.

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22 Keimeno tou eyler me rizika, ARTICLE 132, 133, 147 EULER πιστευει οτι (αβ) 1/2 =α 1/2 β 1/2 και οτι π.χ. (6) 1/2 =(-2) 1/2 (-3) 1/2 ΟΜΩΣ (-2) 1/2 (-3) 1/2 =((-1)2) 1/2 ((-1)3) 1/2 = (-1) 1/2 (2) 1/2 (-1) 1/2 (3) 1/2 ((-1) 1/2 ) 2 2 1/2 3 1/2 =(-1)(6) 1/2 1 1/2 =((-1)(-1)) 1/2 = (-1) 1/2 (-1) 1/2 = ????

23 ΦΥΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΟΡΙΣΜΟΥ ΚΑΤ ΑΡΧΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤ ΑΡΧΑΣ ΑΥΘΑΙΡΕΤΟΣ ΑΝ ΑΠΑΙΤΟΥΜΕ ΠΟΙΟΤΗΤΑ, ΠΡΕΠΕΙ ΝΑ ΑΝΑΛΟΓΙΣΘΟΥΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΝΥΝ ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΠΡΑΞΗ

24 ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΣΗ ΜΙΓΑΔΙΚΩΝ απο EULER: ΠΕΙΘΕΙ ?

25

26 ΜΑΘΗΜΑ: ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΤΕΡΩΝ ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΙΚΩΝ και προεκτάσεις εις την διδασκαλίαν ΔΙΔΑΣΚΩΝ: ΣΤΑΥΡΟΣ Γ. ΠΑΠΑΣΤΑΥΡΙΔΗΣ, ο. Καθηγητής ΕΚΠΑ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ 4: ΑΛΓΕΒΡΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΝΑΓΕΝΝΗΣΗ ΥΠΟΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ 2: ΑΛΓΕΒΡΙΚΟΣ ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΞΗ 18, ΗΜΕΡΟΜΗΝΙΑ:

27 ΕΠΑΝΑΛΗΨΕΙΣ : ΥΠΑΡΧΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΜΙΓΑΔΙΚΟΙ ? EULER, Elements of Algebra, part 1, art. 151

28 ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΣΗ ΜΙΓΑΔΙΚΩΝ απο EULER: ΠΕΙΘΕΙ ?

29

30 ΦΥΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΟΡΙΣΜΟΥ ΚΑΤ ΑΡΧΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤ ΑΡΧΑΣ ΑΥΘΑΙΡΕΤΟΣ ΑΝ ΑΠΑΙΤΟΥΜΕ ΠΟΙΟΤΗΤΑ, ΠΡΕΠΕΙ ΝΑ ΑΝΑΛΟΓΙΣΘΟΥΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΝΥΝ ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΠΡΑΞΗ

31 Algebraic Symbolism And Technique Associativity

32 a x a -y =a x-y ΠΡΟΣΕΤΑΙΡΙΣΤΙΚΗ ΙΔΙΟΤΗΤΑ, ειναι προφανες ? a 3 =(aa)a= a(aa) a 4 = a 2 a 2 (aa)a)a ??? = (aa)(aa)) ΣΧΟΛΙΟ. ΑΝ ΠΡΟΣΕΧΑΝ ΤΕΤΟΙΕΣ «ΛΕΠΤΟΜΕΡΙΕΣ», ΤΙ?

33 Algebraic Symbolism And Technique ΑΛΛΑΓΗ ΜΕΤΑΒΛΗΤΩΝ

34 AB=8, A 2 + B 2 =27 A= x + y 1/2, B=x- y 1/2, AB=x 2 –y=8, A 2 + B 2 = 2(x 2 +y) =27

35 4.3.6 HIGHER DEGREE EQUATION

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40 ΑΠΑΛΟΙΦΗ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΥ ΟΡΟΥ

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42 a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + a n-2 x n-2 +… + a 0 =0 x=y-( a n-1 )/( na n ) a n x n + a n-1 x n a n-2 x n-2 +… + a 0 =a n (y-( a n-1 )/(n a n )) n + + a n-1 (y-( a n-1 )/(n a n )) n-1 +οροι βαθμου <(ν-2)= = a n (y n –n(( a n-1 )/( a n )n)y n-1 +οροι βαθμου <(ν-2) ) + a n-1 y n-1 +οροι βαθμου <(ν-2) = a n y n + = a n y n + οροι βαθμου <(ν-2)


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