Άδειες Χρήσης Το παρόν εκπαιδευτικό υλικό υπόκειται σε άδειες χρήσης Creative Commons. Για εκπαιδευτικό υλικό, όπως εικόνες, που υπόκειται σε άλλου τύπου άδειας χρήσης, η άδεια χρήσης αναφέρεται ρητώς. 2
Χρηματοδότηση Το παρόν εκπαιδευτικό υλικό έχει αναπτυχθεί στα πλαίσια του εκπαιδευτικού έργου του διδάσκοντα. Το έργο «Ανοικτά Ακαδημαϊκά Μαθήματα στο Ανώτατο Εκπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα Πειραιά Τεχνολογικού Τομέα» έχει χρηματοδοτήσει μόνο την αναδιαμόρφωση του εκπαιδευτικού υλικού. Το έργο υλοποιείται στο πλαίσιο του Επιχειρησιακού Προγράμματος «Εκπαίδευση και Δια Βίου Μάθηση» και συγχρηματοδοτείται από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινωνικό Ταμείο) και από εθνικούς πόρους. 3
Σκοποί ενότητας In this section you will acquire and practise specific vocabulary associated with taxation - the principles of taxation - tax systems - types of taxes practise relative clauses 4
Principles of Taxation The primary function of taxation is to raise revenue to finance government expenditure. Economists and political philosophers have proposed two major principles for organizing a tax system: The benefit principle holds that individuals should be taxed in proportion to the benefit they receive from government programs. The ability to pay principle, which states that the amount of taxes people pay should relate to their income or wealth. The higher the wealth, the higher the taxes.
Principles of Taxation Glossary taxation: the act of levying taxes/ φορολογία raise revenue: increase the income (of a government from taxation)/ συλλέγω έσοδα expenditure: the act of spending funds; disbursement; expenses/ έξοδα benefit: something that provides a good or helpful result or effect/ όφελος income: money that an individual or business receives in exchange for providing a good or service/ εισόδημα wealth: an abundance of valuable material possessions or resources/ πλούτος
Tax Categories The principles of taxation lead to the question of tax rates and the manner in which tax rates change according to income. A tax is progressive if its average rate increases as the taxable base increases. A regressive tax is one whose average rate declines as income increases. A tax is proportional when its average rate remains the same, regardless of the size of the income.
Tax Categories Glossary tax rate: the percentage of the value of income or property to be paid as a tax/ φορολογικός συντελεστής progressive tax: a tax that takes a larger percentage from the income of high-income earners than it does from low-income individuals/ προοδευτικός φόρος tax base: measure upon which the assessment or determination of tax liability is based/ φορολογική βάση regressive tax: a tax that takes a higher percentage of low income earners than it does from high income ones/ φόρος αντίστροφα προσθετικός proportional tax: a tax system that requires the same percentage of income from all taxpayers, regardless of their earnings/ αναλογικός φόρος
Direct and Indirect Taxes Direct taxes are levied directly upon individuals or firms. Examples include personal income taxes, social security or other payroll taxes, and inheritance and gift taxes. Indirect taxes are levied on goods and services. Examples are excise and sales taxes, a value added tax (VAT) on consumer goods, tariffs and duties on imports, and property taxes.
Direct and Indirect Taxes Glossary levy: impose a tax/ επιβάλλω φόρους income tax: tax on wages and salaries and on company profits / φόρος εισοδήματος social security tax: tax paid for pensions and other monetary assistance to the aged, unemployed, etc/ εισφορές κοινωνικής ασφάλισης payroll tax: tax an employer withholds and pays on behalf of their employees based on their wage or salary/ φόρος μισθωτών υπηρεσιών inheritance tax: tax paid for property passing at the owner’s death to the heir/ φόρος κληρονομίας
Direct and Indirect Taxes Glossary excise tax: tax on goods, such as spirits, produced for the home market / ειδικός φόρος κατανάλωσης value added tax : tax collected at each stage of production/ φόρος προστιθέμενης αξίας tariff: tax levied by a government on imports or occasionally exports for purposes of protection, support of the balance of payments, or the raising of revenue/ δασμολόγιο duty: government tax on imported goods/ δασμός property tax: tax on the possessions of a particular owner/ φόρος ακίνητης περιουσίας 12
Tax Accounting The tax office is responsible for collecting taxes calculating tax refunds, and enforcing tax law. Tax accounting practitioners help taxpayers comply with the law by filling their tax returns. Another tax accounting activity is planning for future tax obligations.
Tax Accounting Glossary tax office: a governmental office engaged in collection of revenue through taxes/ εφορία tax refund (or tax rebate) : a refund on taxes when the tax liability is less than the taxes paid/επιστροφή φόρου comply with: to act in accordance with rules, wishes, etc./ συμμορφώνομαι tax return: the tax form used to file income taxes with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) / φορολογική δήλωση
Tax Avoidance and Evasion Many high-income people or companies can reduce their tax liabilities by finding legal tricks that deduct tax from large amounts of income, i.e. donations to charities. Other companies may set up their head offices in tax havens. In addition to legally avoiding taxes through the use of loopholes, there is also the problem of illegal tax evasion. Involved here is the concealing of income from undeclared jobs. Finally, criminal organizations manage to disguise the origin of their profits through money laundering.
Tax Avoidance and Evasion Glossary tax avoidance: the use of legal methods to modify an individual's financial situation in order to lower the amount of income tax owed/ φοροαποφυγή deduct: subtract/παρακρατώ tax havens: countries where taxes are low/ φορολογικοί παράδεισοι loophole: a technicality that allows a person or business to avoid a law or restriction without directly violating it /παραθυράκι νόμου tax evasion: an illegal practice where a person or organization intentionally avoids paying their true tax liability /φοροδιαφυγή money laundering: The process of taking the proceeds of criminal activity and making them appear legal /ξέπλυμα χρήματος