Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός Recall from Chapter the very common pronoun and adjective αὐτός -ή -ό, which declines like a regular adjective ( σοφός -ή -όν ), except –the neuter nom/acc singular is αὐτό ( rather than αὐτόν). –it has no vocative forms.
Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός αὐτός -ή -ό has several different functions: –In all cases, but only in the predicate position, it can serve as an intensifier ὁ Σωκράτης αὐτός Socrates himself. –In all cases, but only in the attributive position, it means “the same” ὁ αὐτὸς Σωκράτης The same Socrates. –In the oblique cases (genitive, dative, accusative), it serves as a generic pronoun: ὁ Σωκράτης βάλλει αὐτό. Socrates throws it.
Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός αὐτός -ή -ό has several different functions: –In the oblique cases (genitive, dative, accusative), it serves as a generic pronoun: ὁ Σωκράτης βάλλει αὐτό. Socrates throws it. –This use as a pronoun means it frequently indicates possession. φιλῶ τὴν τοῦ Σωκράτους γυναῖκα. –I like Socrates’ wife. φιλῶ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ. –I like his wife.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns Greek and English form reflexive pronouns much the same way: combine a personal pronoun with the intensive pronoun. –ἐμ(ε) + αὐτοῦ etc. = my + self –ἡμῶν + αὐτῶν etc. = our + selves –σε + αὐτοῦ etc. = your + self –ὑμῶν + αὐτῶν etc. = your + selves –ἑ + αὐτοῦ etc. = him/her/it + self –ἑ + αὐτῶν etc. = them + selves
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns For example, the first person singular reflexive pronoun becomes: –Genitive: ἐμαυτοῦ/ῆς –Dative: ἐμαυτῷ/ῇ –Accusative: ἐμαυτόν/ήν –ἐμαυτὸν ὁρῶ. I see myself.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns In the plural, the two parts are kept separate: –Genitive: ἡμῶν αὐτῶν –Dative: ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ἡμᾶς αὐτούς/άς –ὁρῶμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. We see ourselves.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns The second person singular reflexive pronoun becomes: –Genitive: σεαυτοῦ/ῆς –Dative: σεαυτῷ/ῇ –Accusative: σεαυτόν/ήν –σεαυτὸν ὁρᾷς. You see yourself.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns In the plural, the two parts are kept separate: –Genitive: ὑμῶν αὐτῶν –Dative: ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ὑμᾶς αὐτούς/άς –ὁρῶτε ὑμᾶς αὐτούς. Y’all see yourselves.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns The third person reflexive pronoun combines in both the singular and plural: –Genitive: ἑαυτοῦ/ῆς, ἑαυτῶν –Dative: ἑαυτῷ/ῇ, ἑαυτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ἑαυτόν/ήν, ἑαυτούς/άς –ἑαυτὸν ὁρᾷ. He sees himself. –ἑαυτὴν ὁρᾷ. She sees herself. –ἑαυτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see themselves.
Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns Warning: Sometimes the ε- contracts and disappears, and only the rough breathing distinguishes the reflexive pronoun from the personal pronoun. –αὐτὸν ὁρῶσιν. They see him. –αὐτὴν ὁρῶσιν. They see her. –αὐτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see them. –αὑτὸν ὁρᾷ. He sees himself. –αὑτὴν ὁρᾷ. She sees herself. –αὑτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see themselves.
Shelmerdine Chapter The reciprocal pronoun Recall the adjective ἄλλος –η –ο “other”: –φιλῶμεν ἄλλους. We love others. –φιλῶμεν τοὺς ἄλλους. We love the others. Greek has an extended form, which for logical reasons exists only in the plural and only in the oblique cases, which means “each other”: –φιλῶμεν ἀλλήλους. We love each other.
Shelmerdine Chapter Questions The word ἆρα marks a simple yes/no question. –τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγω. I tell the truth. –ἆρα τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; Are you telling the truth? ἆρ’ οὐ assumes the answer will be “yes.” –ἆρ’ οὐ τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; You’re telling the truth, aren’t you? ἆρα μή assumes the answer will be “no.” –ἆρα μὴ τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; You’re not telling the truth, are you?
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives This chapter introduces some of the most common words in Greek, demonstrative pronouns. A demonstrative pronoun “points out” (Latin demonstrare) a person, place or thing. English has two common demonstrative pronouns: –This/these refers to nouns near to the speaker in some way (“this crocodile here”). –That/those refers to nouns distant from the speaker in some way (“that crocodile there”).
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives The Greek demonstrative adjective ἐκεῖνος -η -ο declines regularly, except, like αὐτός -ή -ό, –the neuter nom/acc singular is ἐκεῖνο ( rather than ἐκεῖνον). –it has no vocative forms. It corresponds generally to English that/those. When modifying a noun, the noun normally has an article and ἐκεῖνος -η -ο must be in the predicate position. –ἐκεῖνος ὁ κροκόδειλος “that crocodile” –ἐκεῖνος “that man” –ἐκείνη “that woman” –ἐκεῖνα “those things”
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives Greek has two adjectives which correspond generally to English this/those: –οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο –ὅδε ἥδε τόδε
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives The Greek demonstrative adjective οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο declines regularly with the stem τουτ-, except –the neuter nom/acc singular is τοῦτο ( rather than τοῦτον). –The nom/acc neuter plural forms and all feminine forms but the genitive plural change the stem to ταυτ-. –The nominative masculine and feminine forms replace the initial τ with a rough breathing.
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives –οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε correspond generally to English this/these. When modifying a noun, the noun normally has an article and the adjective must be in the predicate position. –οὗτος (ὅδε) ὁ κροκόδειλος “this crocodile” –οὗτος, ὅδε “this man” –αὕτη, ἥδε “this woman” –ταῦτα, τάδε “these things”
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives In general, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refers to something already mentioned, while ὅδε ἥδε τόδε refers to something about to be mentioned: –ὁ Σωκράτης ἀπέβη· τοῦτό σοι λέγω. Socrates left. This is what I’m telling you. –λέγω σοι τάδε· ὁ Σωκράτης ἀπέβη. I’m telling you this: Socrates left.
Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε appear very often in adverbial form: –τὰ χρήματα μοι ἔδωκεν· οὕτω μοι ἔπεισεν. –τὰ χρήματα μοι ἔδωκεν· οὕτως ἔπεισέ μοι. He gave me money. This way, he convinced me. (The final -ς drops before a consonant.) –ἔπεισέ μοι ὧδε· τὰ χρήματά μοι ἔδωκεν· He convinced me this way: he gave me money.