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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 24.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 24."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 24

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός Recall from Chapter the very common pronoun and adjective αὐτός -ή -ό, which declines like a regular adjective ( σοφός -ή -όν ), except –the neuter nom/acc singular is αὐτό ( rather than αὐτόν). –it has no vocative forms.

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός αὐτός -ή -ό has several different functions: –In all cases, but only in the predicate position, it can serve as an intensifier ὁ Σωκράτης αὐτός Socrates himself. –In all cases, but only in the attributive position, it means “the same” ὁ αὐτὸς Σωκράτης The same Socrates. –In the oblique cases (genitive, dative, accusative), it serves as a generic pronoun: ὁ Σωκράτης βάλλει αὐτό. Socrates throws it.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 αὐτός αὐτός -ή -ό has several different functions: –In the oblique cases (genitive, dative, accusative), it serves as a generic pronoun: ὁ Σωκράτης βάλλει αὐτό. Socrates throws it. –This use as a pronoun means it frequently indicates possession. φιλῶ τὴν τοῦ Σωκράτους γυναῖκα. –I like Socrates’ wife. φιλῶ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ. –I like his wife.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

7 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns Greek and English form reflexive pronouns much the same way: combine a personal pronoun with the intensive pronoun. –ἐμ(ε) + αὐτοῦ etc. = my + self –ἡμῶν + αὐτῶν etc. = our + selves –σε + αὐτοῦ etc. = your + self –ὑμῶν + αὐτῶν etc. = your + selves –ἑ + αὐτοῦ etc. = him/her/it + self –ἑ + αὐτῶν etc. = them + selves

8 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns For example, the first person singular reflexive pronoun becomes: –Genitive: ἐμαυτοῦ/ῆς –Dative: ἐμαυτῷ/ῇ –Accusative: ἐμαυτόν/ήν –ἐμαυτὸν ὁρῶ. I see myself.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns In the plural, the two parts are kept separate: –Genitive: ἡμῶν αὐτῶν –Dative: ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ἡμᾶς αὐτούς/άς –ὁρῶμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. We see ourselves.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns The second person singular reflexive pronoun becomes: –Genitive: σεαυτοῦ/ῆς –Dative: σεαυτῷ/ῇ –Accusative: σεαυτόν/ήν –σεαυτὸν ὁρᾷς. You see yourself.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns In the plural, the two parts are kept separate: –Genitive: ὑμῶν αὐτῶν –Dative: ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ὑμᾶς αὐτούς/άς –ὁρῶτε ὑμᾶς αὐτούς. Y’all see yourselves.

12 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns The third person reflexive pronoun combines in both the singular and plural: –Genitive: ἑαυτοῦ/ῆς, ἑαυτῶν –Dative: ἑαυτῷ/ῇ, ἑαυτοῖς/αῖς –Accusative: ἑαυτόν/ήν, ἑαυτούς/άς –ἑαυτὸν ὁρᾷ. He sees himself. –ἑαυτὴν ὁρᾷ. She sees herself. –ἑαυτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see themselves.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter Reflexive pronouns Warning: Sometimes the ε- contracts and disappears, and only the rough breathing distinguishes the reflexive pronoun from the personal pronoun. –αὐτὸν ὁρῶσιν. They see him. –αὐτὴν ὁρῶσιν. They see her. –αὐτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see them. –αὑτὸν ὁρᾷ. He sees himself. –αὑτὴν ὁρᾷ. She sees herself. –αὑτοὺς ὁρῶσιν. They see themselves.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

15 Shelmerdine Chapter Direct and indirect reflexives Like αὐτός -ή -ό, the third person reflexive pronoun will indicate possession, but in the attributive position. –ὁ Περικλῆς φυλάττει τοὺς τῆς Ἀθήνης πολίτας. Pericles protects Athena’s citizens. –ὁ Περικλῆς φυλάττει τοὺς πολίτας αὐτῆς. Pericles protects her citizens. –ἡ Ἀθήνη φυλάττει τοὺς ἑαυτῆς πολίτας. –ἡ Ἀθήνη φυλάττει τοὺς αὑτῆς πολίτας. Athena protects her (own) citizens.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter Direct and indirect reflexives There is a.pdf posted in Moodle which arranges all the Personal and Reflexive Pronouns together on one page.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The reciprocal pronoun Recall the adjective ἄλλος –η –ο “other”: –φιλῶμεν ἄλλους. We love others. –φιλῶμεν τοὺς ἄλλους. We love the others. Greek has an extended form, which for logical reasons exists only in the plural and only in the oblique cases, which means “each other”: –φιλῶμεν ἀλλήλους. We love each other.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

20 Shelmerdine Chapter Questions The word ἆρα marks a simple yes/no question. –τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγω. I tell the truth. –ἆρα τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; Are you telling the truth? ἆρ’ οὐ assumes the answer will be “yes.” –ἆρ’ οὐ τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; You’re telling the truth, aren’t you? ἆρα μή assumes the answer will be “no.” –ἆρα μὴ τὰ ἀληθὴ λέγεις; You’re not telling the truth, are you?

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives This chapter introduces some of the most common words in Greek, demonstrative pronouns. A demonstrative pronoun “points out” (Latin demonstrare) a person, place or thing. English has two common demonstrative pronouns: –This/these refers to nouns near to the speaker in some way (“this crocodile here”). –That/those refers to nouns distant from the speaker in some way (“that crocodile there”).

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives The Greek demonstrative adjective ἐκεῖνος -η -ο declines regularly, except, like αὐτός -ή -ό, –the neuter nom/acc singular is ἐκεῖνο ( rather than ἐκεῖνον). –it has no vocative forms. It corresponds generally to English that/those. When modifying a noun, the noun normally has an article and ἐκεῖνος -η -ο must be in the predicate position. –ἐκεῖνος ὁ κροκόδειλος “that crocodile” –ἐκεῖνος “that man” –ἐκείνη “that woman” –ἐκεῖνα “those things”

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives Greek has two adjectives which correspond generally to English this/those: –οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο –ὅδε ἥδε τόδε

25 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives The Greek demonstrative adjective οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο declines regularly with the stem τουτ-, except –the neuter nom/acc singular is τοῦτο ( rather than τοῦτον). –The nom/acc neuter plural forms and all feminine forms but the genitive plural change the stem to ταυτ-. –The nominative masculine and feminine forms replace the initial τ with a rough breathing.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτοοὗτοι αὗται ταῦτα τούτου ταύτης τούτου τούτων τούτων τούτων τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο τούτους ταύτας ταῦτα vocative = nominative

27 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives ὅδε ἥδε τόδε is the definite article with the suffix - δε. ὅδε ἥδετόδε οἵδε αἵδε τάδε τοῦδε τῆσδε τοῦδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τῷδε τῇδε τῷδε τοῖσδε ταῖσδε τοῖσδε τόνδε τήνδε τόδε τούσδε τάσδε τάδε

28 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives –οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε correspond generally to English this/these. When modifying a noun, the noun normally has an article and the adjective must be in the predicate position. –οὗτος (ὅδε) ὁ κροκόδειλος “this crocodile” –οὗτος, ὅδε “this man” –αὕτη, ἥδε “this woman” –ταῦτα, τάδε “these things”

29 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives In general, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refers to something already mentioned, while ὅδε ἥδε τόδε refers to something about to be mentioned: –ὁ Σωκράτης ἀπέβη· τοῦτό σοι λέγω. Socrates left. This is what I’m telling you. –λέγω σοι τάδε· ὁ Σωκράτης ἀπέβη. I’m telling you this: Socrates left.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε appear very often in adverbial form: –τὰ χρήματα μοι ἔδωκεν· οὕτω μοι ἔπεισεν. –τὰ χρήματα μοι ἔδωκεν· οὕτως ἔπεισέ μοι. He gave me money. This way, he convinced me. (The final -ς drops before a consonant.) –ἔπεισέ μοι ὧδε· τὰ χρήματά μοι ἔδωκεν· He convinced me this way: he gave me money.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 1.Reflexive pronouns 2.Direct and indirect reflexives 3.The reciprocal pronoun 4.Questions 5.Demonstrative pronouns / adjectives 6. τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος

32 Shelmerdine Chapter τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος Two compounds of οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer specifically to the quantity or quality of something: –τοι- + οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο  τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο τοιοῦτος “this kind of man” (quality) –τοσ- + οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο  τοσοῦτος τοσαύτη τοσοῦτο τοσαῦτα χρήματα “this much money” (quantity)

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 for next class (Wednesday, March 2, 2011): Quiz: Write out the forms of οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο on page 166. Prepare Reading “A Strange Rescue” for class.

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 ἦν δὲ ποτε ἐν Κορίνθῳ κιθαρῳδός, ὀνόματι Ἀρίων, οὐδενὸς δεύτερος τῶν τότε ὄντων· καὶ οὗτος ὁ Ἀρίων, ὡς λέγουσι, τὸν πολὺν τοῦ χρόνου μείνας παρὰ Περιάνδρῳ, τῷ Κορίνθου τυράννῳ, ἔπλευσεν εἰς Ἰταλίαν τε καὶ Σικελίαν, τέλος δὲ χρήματα μεγάλα ἐκεῖ δεξάμενος διὰ τὴν τέχνην, ἐβούλετο πάλιν εἰς Κόρινθον πλεῖν.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 ἦν δὲ ποτε ἐν Κορίνθῳ κιθαρῳδός, ὀνόματι Ἀρίων, οὐδενὸς δεύτερος τῶν τότε ὄντων· καὶ οὗτος ὁ Ἀρίων, ὡς λέγουσι, τὸν πολὺν τοῦ χρόνου μείνας παρὰ Περιάνδρῳ, τῷ Κορίνθου τυράννῳ, ἔπλευσεν εἰς Ἰταλίαν τε καὶ Σικελίαν, τέλος δὲ χρήματα μεγάλα ἐκεῖ δεξάμενος διὰ τὴν τέχνην, ἐβούλετο πάλιν εἰς Κόρινθον πλεῖν.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 πιστεύων δὲ μάλιστα τοῖς Κορινθίοις ἐμισθώσατο πλοῖον ἀνδρῶν Κορινθίων· ἀπέπλευσαν μὲν οὖν ἀπὸ Τάραντος, ἐν δὲ τῷ πελάγει οἱ ναῦται ἐπεβούλευσαν τὸν Ἀρίονα ἐκβαλόντες ἔχειν τὰ χρήματα αὐτοῦ· ὁ δέ τοῦτο μαθὼν ᾔτησεν αὐτοὺς χρήματα μὲν λαβεῖν, τὴν δ’ ἑαυτοῦ ψυχὴν σῶσαι.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 πιστεύων δὲ μάλιστα τοῖς Κορινθίοις ἐμισθώσατο πλοῖον ἀνδρῶν Κορινθίων· ἀπέπλευσαν μὲν οὖν ἀπὸ Τάραντος, ἐν δὲ τῷ πελάγει οἱ ναῦται ἐπεβούλευσαν τὸν Ἀρίονα ἐκβαλόντες ἔχειν τὰ χρήματα αὐτοῦ· ὁ δέ τοῦτο μαθὼν ᾔτησεν αὐτοὺς χρήματα μὲν λαβεῖν, τὴν δ’ ἑαυτοῦ ψυχὴν σῶσαι.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 ἀλλ’ οὐ πεισθέντες οἱ ναῦται ἐκέλευσαν αὐτὸν ἢ ἑαυτὸν ἀποκτείνειν, εἰ τάφον βούλεται ἐν γῇ, ἢ εὐθὺς ἐκπηδᾶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν. ὁ δὲ Ἀρίων εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Ἐᾶτέ με πρῶτον ἐν τῇ σκευῇ πάσῃ ἀείδειν. οἱ δὲ ἀπεχώρησαν ἐκ τῆς πρύμνης εἰς μέσην τὴν ναῦν. ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ μὲν Ἀρίων, λαβὼν τὴν κιθάραν καὶ ἀείσας, ἔβαλεν ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν, τὴν σκευὴν πᾶσαν φορῶν. οἱ δὲ ναῦται ἀπέπλευσαν εἰς Κόρινθον.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 ἀλλ’ οὐ πεισθέντες οἱ ναῦται ἐκέλευσαν αὐτὸν ἢ ἑαυτὸν ἀποκτείνειν, εἰ τάφον βούλεται ἐν γῇ, ἢ εὐθὺς ἐκπηδᾶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν. ὁ δὲ Ἀρίων εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Ἐᾶτέ με πρῶτον ἐν τῇ σκευῇ πάσῃ ἀείδειν. οἱ δὲ ἀπεχώρησαν ἐκ τῆς πρύμνης εἰς μέσην τὴν ναῦν. ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ μὲν Ἀρίων, λαβὼν τὴν κιθάραν καὶ ἀείσας, ἔβαλεν ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν, τὴν σκευὴν πᾶσαν φορῶν. οἱ δὲ ναῦται ἀπέπλευσαν εἰς Κόρινθον.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 καὶ τότε δὴ μέγιστον θαῦμα ἐγένετο· δελφὶς γὰρ αὐτὸν ὑπολαβὼν ἐπόρευσεν εἰς γῆν. ὁ μὲν οὖν Ἀρίων ἐπόρευσατο εἰς Κόρινθον καὶ ἥκων πᾶν τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐξηγεῖτο τῷ Περιάνδρῳ· οὐκ ἐπίστευσεν ἐκείνῳ. τῶν δὲ ναυτῶν τέλος εἰς Κόρινθον πορευσαμένων, ἠρώτησεν ὁ τύραννος περὶ τοῦ Ἀρίωνος· λιπεῖν αὐτὸν ἔφασαν εὖ πράττοντα ἐν Τάραντι.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 καὶ τότε δὴ μέγιστον θαῦμα ἐγένετο· δελφὶς γὰρ αὐτὸν ὑπολαβὼν ἐπόρευσεν εἰς γῆν. ὁ μὲν οὖν Ἀρίων ἐπόρευσατο εἰς Κόρινθον καὶ ἥκων πᾶν τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐξηγεῖτο τῷ Περιάνδρῳ· οὐκ ἐπίστευσεν ἐκείνῳ. τῶν δὲ ναυτῶν τέλος εἰς Κόρινθον πορευσαμένων, ἠρώτησεν ὁ τύραννος περὶ τοῦ Ἀρίωνος· λιπεῖν αὐτὸν ἔφασαν εὖ πράττοντα ἐν Τάραντι.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 τοῦτο λεγόντων, ἐπεφαίνετο αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἀρίων αὐτὸς, φορῶν τὴν ἀυτὴν σκεύην· οἱ δὲ ναῦται τῷδε τῷ τρόπῳ ψευδεῖς ἐδηλώψησαν.

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 τοῦτο λεγόντων, ἐπεφαίνετο αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἀρίων αὐτὸς, φορῶν τὴν ἀυτὴν σκεύην· οἱ δὲ ναῦται τῷδε τῷ τρόπῳ ψευδεῖς ἐδηλώψησαν.

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 for tomorrow (Thursday, March 3, 2011): Quiz: Chapter 24 Vocabulary. –Verbs: omit ἀποβάλλω Continue reading.

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 24 7 εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτόν Ἐγὼ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐξαγαγών σε ἐκ χώρας Χαλδαίων ὥστε δοῦναί σοι τὴν γῆν ταύτην κληρονομῆσαι. 8 εἶπεν δέ Δέσποτα κύριε, κατὰ τί γνώσομαι ὅτι κληρονομήσω αὐτήν; 9 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Λαβέ μοι δάμαλιν τριετίζουσαν καὶ αἶγα τριετίζουσαν καὶ κριὸν τριετίζοντα καὶ τρυγόνα καὶ περιστεράν. αἴξ, αἰγός ὁ/ἡ goat γινώσκω, γνώσομαι know δάμαλις –εως ἡ heifer Δεσπότης –ου ὁ Lord ἐξάγω lead out κατὰ τί How? κληρονομέω take possession of κριός –οῦ ὁ ram κύριος –ου ὁ Lord περιστερά -ᾶς ἡ pigeon τριετίζω be three years old τρυγών -όνος ἡ turtle-dove Χαλδαῖος –α –ον Chaldean ὥστε δοῦναί σοι in such a way that you would have given to you

46 Shelmerdine Chapter ἔλαβεν δὲ αὐτῷ πάντα ταῦτα καὶ διεῖλεν αὐτὰ μέσα καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὰ ἀντιπρόσωπα ἀλλήλοις, τὰ δὲ ὄρνεα οὐ διεῖλεν. 11 κατέβη δὲ ὄρνεα ἐπὶ τὰ σώματα, τὰ διχοτομήματα αὐτῶν, καὶ συνεκάθισεν αὐτοῖς Αβραμ. 12 περὶ δὲ ἡλίου δυσμὰς ἔκστασις ἐπέπεσεν τῷ Αβραμ, καὶ ἰδοὺ φόβος σκοτεινὸς μέγας ἐπιπίπτει αὐτῷ. ἀντιπρόσωπος –ον facing διαιρέω –αιρήσομαι –εῖλον divide διχοτόμημα -ατος τό half δυσμή -ῆς ἡ setting ἔκστασις –εως ἡ trance ἐπιπίπτω –πεσοῦμαι -έπεσον fall on ἰδού Look! καταβαίνω –βήσομαι -έβην walk down μέσος –η –ον middle of ὄρνεον –ου τό bird σκοτεινός –ή -όν dark συγκαθίζω sit with φόβος –ου ὁ fear

47 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ ἐρρέθη πρὸς Αβραμ Γινώσκων γνώσῃ ὅτι πάροικον ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου ἐν γῇ οὐκ ἰδίᾳ, καὶ δουλώσουσιν αὐτοὺς καὶ κακώσουσιν αὐτοὺς καὶ ταπεινώσουσιν αὐτοὺς τετρακόσια ἔτη. 14 τὸ δὲ ἔθνος, ᾧ ἐὰν δουλεύσωσιν, κρινῶ ἐγώ· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐξελεύσονται ὧδε μετὰ ἀποσκευῆς πολλῆς. (Γένεσις ) ἀποσκευή -ῆς ἡ packing γινώσκω, γνώσομαι know δουλόω be a slave έάν [= ἄν, untranslatable] ἔθνος –ους τό people, nation ἐξέρχομαι –ελεύσομαι -ῆλθον go away ἐρρέθην aor. pass. < ἐρῶ speak ἴδιος –α –ον one's one, their own κακόω do bad κρίνω κρινῶ ἔκρινα judge πάροικος –ον nomadic σπέρμα –ατος τό seed ταπεινόω abuse τετρακόσιος –α –ον four hundred


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