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Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2001) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2001) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη ) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης Αξίας EDI και Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου Εισαγωγή στο Ηλεκτρονικό Εμπόριο / Επιχειρείν (Electronic Commerce / Business)

2 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ΣΥΝΟΨΗ Το μάθημα εξετάζει το θέμα του Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου / Ηλεκτρονικού Επιχειρείν και των Δικτύων Προστιθέμενης Αξίας Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) από πολλές πλευρές. Παρουσιάζεται η συμβολή των Δικτύων Υπολογιστών στις Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (Δίκτυα προστιθέμενης αξίας OSI - Χ.400, TCP/IP - Internet, Intranets). Εξετάζονται θέματα ασφάλειας και προστασία των πληροφοριών (μηχανισμοί πρόσβασης και πιστοποίησης, ακεραιότητα και αυθεντικότητα συναλλαγών).

3 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Παρουσιάζονται Περιβάλλοντα Λογισμικού για Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (αυτοματοποίηση συναλλαγών, πρότυπα λογισμικού). Παρουσιάζεται η αρχιτεκτονική των πληροφοριακών συστημάτων για εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (οφέλη, επίδραση στην οργάνωση της παραγωγής και διακίνηση αγαθών, εφαρμογές μεταξύ επιχειρήσεων - πιστωτικών φορέων - δημοσίου - πολιτών, νομικό - κανονιστικό πλαίσιο, διεθνής και ελληνική εμπειρία). ΣΥΝΟΨΗ (2)

4 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Εξετάζονται θέματα δομής και τυποποίησης μηνυμάτων EDI και οι διαδικασίες τυποποίησης / πιστοποίησης EDI στην Ελλάδα. Τέλος παρουσιάζεται η συμβολή των Βάσεων Δεδομένων για εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου (Web-based data bases, ηλεκτρονικά σημεία συναλλαγών, διαλειτουργικότητα Βάσεων Δεδομένων, εφαρμογές τηλεσυνεργασίας - κατανεμημένο workflow) καθώς και η Ολοκλήρωση Τεχνολογιών Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου, δηλαδή η αρχιτεκτονική ενοποιημένου λογισμικού. ΣΥΝΟΨΗ (3)

5 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: what is electronic commerce? Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) is the process of two or more parties making business transactions via computer and some type of network. Internet.com - The Electronic Commerce Guide: Expert Advice. Mecklermedia Corporation, The business practices and technologies known collectively as Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) include: –Using for business communication –Using Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) with your bank, your suppliers, and your clients –Establishing a Website to market your products or services –Implementing an Internet-based retail business –Implementing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) with your suppliers and clients –Integrating EDI with your in-house financial systems

6 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: what is electronic commerce? (cont.) –Implementing Technical Data Interchange (TDI) to exchange engineering drawings –Implementing compatible E-Commerce practices throughout your acquisition to distribution supply network –Creating a "virtual enterprise" that fully integrates the design, manufacturing, finance, inventory control, distribution and maintenance systems in your business E-COMMERCE –Carrying out business activities that lead to an exchange of value across telecommunications networks

7 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Typical Classification Business-to-Business (B2B) Business-to-Public Body (e.g., Government) Business-to-Individual / Consumer (B2C) Individual-to-Public Body

8 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ECommerce: islands (of automation) in the sun

9 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: the exploding growth of the market E-Commerce growth is more than 150% per year or 4 times faster than the overall economy Source : Forrester Research, IDC

10 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: the exploding growth of the market 360 Billion** By Billion* Now Source: Yankee Group, IDC, Forrester Research The Real Revenue Growth in E-Commerce has not yet happened * 22% from consumer transactions and 78% from business-to-business transactions. ** A more conservative estimation of “only” 294 billion in revenue by 2002, was given by the West Chester Electronic Commerce Resource Center. 8.8% out of the revenue from consumer transactions and 91.2% from business-to-business transactions.

11 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: a changing demographic E-Commerce is moving from the technologist and hobbyists, the “computer literate” To new, mainstream users. Including 1 st time buyers and larger percentages of women Source: IDC, Forrester Research

12 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Introduction: major players Dell Gateway CompUSA Amazon NECX Egghead Buy.com OnSale.com Outpost.com Shopping.com Dell Gateway CompUSA Amazon NECX Egghead Buy.com OnSale.com Outpost.com Shopping.com 18 Billion (1 billion Web) 7.4 Billion (550 million Web) 5.3 Billion (357 million Web) 600 Million 406 Million 293 Million 120 Million 57 Million 23 Million 15 Million * 18 Billion (1 billion Web) 7.4 Billion (550 million Web) 5.3 Billion (357 million Web) 600 Million 406 Million 293 Million 120 Million 57 Million 23 Million 15 Million * The Expected Growth for these companies in 2001 is at least 150% purchased by Compaq for 230 million dollars

13 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Integrated technology: an example IBM’s Net.Commerce Examples of E-Businesses Getting Started Shopping Flow The Net.Commerce Product

14 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-Commerce technology Includes tools for a company to set up its E-Business. Net.CommerceWe will review IBM’s Net.Commerce as an example of what one can get from state-of-the-art technology. Net.Commerce allows the setting of a generic E- Business without much knowledge of the web, HTML, Java and the like.

15 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Example E-Businesses West Food MartWest Food Mart is a retail store selling groceries. The store features are simple, allowing a customer to get in and out with a few clicks. Notes: Notes: This type of store is appropriate for businesses which target customers, products are familiar, shoppers usually know what to buy, shoppers often buy many items of the same kind. The Office Window. officesThe Office Window. This is a wholesale store selling furniture and computer equipment. This store groups customers into categories, offers them different offices, I.e., lists of offerings, prices etc. Here each customer must register and is classified by the office administrator. Metro Mall.Metro Mall. Contains several stores, offers generic functionality for payment, shipping, security etc., which they can all use.

16 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή site administratorDetermine a site administrator. She is responsible for setting up and managing the high level functions associated with the site, including: store or mall creation, adding/removing stores to a mall, maintaining a list of shipping carriers,… store administratorDetermine a store administrator, who is responsible for day-to-day activities associated with running a store, including: entering, updating and deleting data; creating and updating store pages; creating new commands, or replacing overridable functions (which are activated by the site administrator) For a single-store site, the two positions will usually be filled by one person. Link up to one or more databases, or create new ones. These store product, customer and other information. Getting Started

17 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή There are three types of store models to choose from: One-stop shopOne-stop shop -- shoppers can quickly find and order the product; no registration facility is provided, and only shipping information is required; Personal delivery shopPersonal delivery shop -- also has a simple navigation structure, but has features for personalizing shopping; shoppers register and have shopping carts; their selections (buying, or placing product in cart) are recorded; shoppers can also have an address book for places they send stuff to; Business-to-business store modelBusiness-to-business store model -- this is intended for corporate purchasing; now merchant can group clients into shopper groups (called offices) and offer them different prices; before making a purchase, a client must register and receive approval from an office manager Storing Models

18 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Creating a store (or mall) Choose a store model (among existing models, or create your own) [To actually build your store or mall, you can start from a sample and customize it your requirements, or start from scratch.] [If you are building a store within a mall, you may use the functions provided by the mall, or override them and build your own for your store.] Create a store record, including information about the store and merchant; set up tax rates and define access control. Set up tasks; a task is a process that you want to customize, such as checking inventory, calculating the price of an item, or handling an exception. Specify shipping providers.

19 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Store management information Includes, among other things: Currency and contact information; Store tax rates -- very important, because you can have across-the- border shopping; Category information -- the store’s merchandise is organized into categories; Shipping services -- shipping services, options and charges; Product information -- for products and items (variant products), including SKU#, price, thumbnail and full-size image,… Discount information; Shopper groups -- different groups may get different discounts;

20 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Creating the shopping flow Home page Home page Category pages Category pages Product pages Product pages Interest list Interest list Shipping details Shipping details Place order Place order Check out Check out Confirmation page Confirmation page Prepare order Prepare order Order status Registration registerForm orderList Category Display Product Display ItemAdd/ Display OrderItemList OrderItemDisplay Order List Order Display Order Process

21 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Net.Commerce features Single or multiple store and storefront support. Scalability -- server and databases can run on one or more machines. Multiple platform support -- from laptops to clusters of RS/6000 AIX machines; supports several operating systems including Windows NT and Unix. System integration support -- with existing systems and databases. Dynamic page generation -- pages generated dynamically, revised when data change. Supports multiple natural languages. Product advisor support -- allows merchant to build a knowledge base of sales questions and answers

22 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Net.Commerce capabilities Customer buying groups -- allows some customization of what is offered to whom and at what price. Reorders -- customers can reorder, instead of always ordering from scratch. Customer enrolment Buyer account administration Product organization Multiple navigation paths Tax calculation function Shipping selection and charges function

23 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Net.Commerce START Net.Commerce Server Net.Commerce Administrator Net.Commerce Administrator Firewall Suppliers Shoppers Merchants Store creator Sample stores Site manager Store manager Template designer Store creator Sample stores Site manager Store manager Template designer Commands Tasks Overridable fcns Macros Commands Tasks Overridable fcns Macros Payment Server Payment Server Utilities Mass import DB cleanup... Utilities Mass import DB cleanup... Web Server Lotus Go Domino Netscape Web Server Lotus Go Domino Netscape Dynamic Page Cache Dynamic Page Cache

24 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Supplier/Seller Business Systems Order mgmt Fulfillment Inventory Supply chain Supplier/Seller Business Systems Order mgmt Fulfillment Inventory Supply chain Net.Commerce PRO Product Advisor Product exploration Catalog builder Sales assistant Product comparison Shopping metaphor Product Advisor Product exploration Catalog builder Sales assistant Product comparison Shopping metaphor System Interfaces CICS IMS System Interfaces CICS IMS Supply Chain Interfaces EDI SAP R/3 Supply Chain Interfaces EDI SAP R/3 Pricing Sales tax Accounting Payment Pricing Sales tax Accounting Payment Product/Catalog Customer service Make to order Data mining Product/Catalog Customer service Make to order Data mining

25 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Historical Development E-Commerce –Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) business-to-business e-commerce for the delivery of structured business messages (since 1980) Standards: –ANSI X.12 –EDIFACT (ISO) –UN / GTDI (United Nations for Tradacom - an EDI net) –SWIFT (propietary by 3600 financial institutions) –CALS (Department of Defense - USA) – X.400 Standard cc:mail (de facto for business-to-business)

26 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Historical Development Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) –widespread for information and cash delivery EPOS and EFTPOS –electronic point-of-sale data used by retailers –funds transfer methods supported (credit cards, digital money, etc.) VIDEOTEX –Minitel in FRANCE, BTX in GERMANY Internet Commerce –following major technological developments

27 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Models Business-to-Business Opportunities Supply Chain: Each member adds value to a product and sells it to the next supplier until it reaches the customer Example: Raw Material Supplier, Manufacturer, Retailer, Consumer ALL participate in the supply-chain through the Internet and also use Banking Services Today: mostly FAX or regular Post are used Business-to-Consumer Opportunities New channel merchants have to reach the customers targeting consumer groups Business-to-Government Opportunities More restrictive because of rigid regulations

28 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Drivers DRIVERS for the Uptake of E-Commerce –Time-to-market fast supply-chain –Customer Relationships loyal, happy customers –Reduced Costs no storage, no intermediaries –Access to the Global Market

29 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή EC OBJECTIVES Streamlining Procurement Processes; decrease costs Decrease length of production cycles Achieve closer customer - vendor relationship Enhance Competitiveness and Economic Growth Enable Enterprises to Conduct Business with distant partners Empower Small Businesses

30 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή CHANGES TO THE SUPPLY CHAIN PRODUCT OWNER PRODUCT OWNER Shipping Company CONSUMER Retailer Company Distribution Company CONSUMER INTERNET Standard Cost + variable mark-up TYPICAL SUPPLY-CHAIN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SUPPLY-CHAIN

31 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή OSI ATM TCP/IP DSS MultimediaAgents Search Engines Bidding / Negotiations LEGAL ISSUES REGULATORY PRODUCT OWNER CONSUMER Retailer Company Financial Institution

32 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Changes in Organizations -- Transition –positioning for e-commerce implementing an Intranet (internal communications for a good infrastructure) links with new suppliers adapting the legacy systems to a new e-commerce oriented environment –re-engineering the business adapt organization processes for an e-commerce environment (e.g., changing or even deleting them) –re-defining the business outsourcing (even core activities!) virtual companies

33 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Critical Success factors Critical Factors for Success –Security Encryption and other security technologies (firwalls, smart cards, protocols, etc.) –Acceptance of new payment methods –Availability of infrastructure and bandwidth –Cost to business and consumers –Legal and regulatory issues IPR, consumer protection, security regulation, content regulation, cross-border regulation, etc) –Linguistic and cultural issues

34 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Technological Infrastructure

35 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES NETWORKING –high performance, interoperability, protocols, support for interactivity - interoperability, tele conferencing, etc. IDENTIFICATION - ENCRYPTION –privacy, security, trust, smartcards EDI --- BUSINESS MODELS –(financial) data interchange, business processes, business re- engineering, electronic money, regulation, etc. MULTIMEDIA –vast amount of multimedia data, image exchange, compression, user interfaces

36 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Networks Two main methods are used for transferring ECommerce data: –VAN (Value Added Networks) –Internet

37 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή VAN: Value Added Network A VAN is a company that provides a telecommunication service in a common form and allows delivery and receipt of electronic transmissions between companies (the equivalent of the US Postal Service in the “old days.”) The most famous VAN is GEISCO - GE Information Services Company (Pronounced Guys Co).GEISCO - GE Information Services Company Activities: –Initialization: VAN will set up the trading partners with Mailboxes. –The Buyer and Seller put transactions into and retrieve transactions from their mailboxes on a schedule. –The VAN will sort each parties’ mail and place it in the correct mailbox. On most VAN's this process takes around thirty minutes to an hour. Heterogeneous VAN communication is common.

38 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Communication management: an example The TCP/IP protocol: –Developed by a Department of Defense (DOD) research project to generate a network of networks (the "Internet"). –IP (Internet Protocol): Part of the Network layer of the OSI model, Uses a four byte destination address (the IP number, e.g ). –Numbers are assigned by the Internet authorities and granted by the organization. An IP router decides where a packet is sent next, by the "clockwise" algorithm, by alternating among algorithms or by identifying least busy links. –TCP (Transmission Control protocol): Part of the transport layer, responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server; the TCP packet has a header with meta-information about the packet; a socket is a package of subroutines that provide access to TCP/IP on most systems.

39 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή GLOBAL CONNECTIVITY REDUCED COMMUNICATIONS COST LOWER TRANSACTION COSTS REDUCED AGENCY COSTS INTERACTIVITY, FLEXIBILITY, CUSTOMIZATION ACCELERATED KNOWLEDGE Πλεονεκτήματα από το Internet

40 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Extranet

41 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Security, authentication, and privacy In order to provide a trust-worthy ECommerce, a network should provide the following three capabilities: –Security: the transfer of data is protected from observation or alteration by external parties. –Authentication: the identity of a participant should be authenticated, to prevent frauds. –Privacy: the identity of the customer possibly remains anonymous.

42 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) EDI is a standard of computer to computer interchange of business documents in a machine-readable form. Leading EDI standards: EDIFACT [BERGE91] (Europe) and ANSI X12 [HAMILTON93] (North-America). A common EDI scenario: –A customer sends an EDI purchase order to a provider (transaction 850). –The provider returns a purchase order acknowledgment to the customer (transaction 855). –At ship time, the provider sends the customer an EDI advance ship notice (ASN) stating the goods to be shipped (transaction 856). –Once the goods have been shipped and billing has been processed, the provider sends the customer an EDI invoice (transaction 810). –The customer sends payment information to its bank, which wires funds to the provider’s bank through electronic funds transfer (EFT) or financial EDI.

43 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή EDI (semi) structure Components of an EDI message: –data element: a datum identified by a reference number. Examples: date, price, purchase order number, quantity on order. –data segment (or: segments): a sequence of data elements. For example, a purchase order segment consists of part number, part description, quantity, unit of measure and cost. –transaction set (or message): a set of data segments. For example, an invoice (ASC X12 set number 810). –functional group: a set of similar transactions. –Syntax rules: specifying the grammar for EDI dialogue.

44 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Expressing EDI messages EDI can be expressed using OEM [PAPAKONSTANTINOU95]. Each functional group is represented as a graph: –internal nodes are complex values (e.g., transaction sets). –leaf nodes are atomic values of data elements. –edges represent semantic relationships and are labeled for naming purposes. An example

45 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή SHARED DATABASES –distributed - autonomous and heterogeneous information sources, web databases, electronic catalogues, directories, middleware, servers, etc. CO-OPERATIVE APPLICATIONS –CSCW, collaborative work, interoperability, intelligent agents, workflows, LEGAL and REGULATORY ISSUES –Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), electronic copyright, –Consumer Protection --- Linguistic and Cultural Issues –Regulation for: Security, Content, Cross-Border ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES

46 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Data sources E-Commerce involves massive data transfer among systems. This data is stored, in an electronic form, in data sources. There are several ways to classify the different types of data sources that might participate in the provision of data in E-Commerce: –Structure of the information source: Fully structured data, e.g. databases Semi-structured data, e.g, HTML files, source code files Unstructured data, e.g. books in electronic form –Basic operations provided for each source: Query facility: fetch all items x where P(x) Similarity-based retrieval: fetch items x that are similar to y Classification: classify x near similar items

47 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Structured data database schemaA database is a collection of data items, whose structure is defined by a schema (e.g., a relational schema). Database Management System DBMSA Database Management System (DBMS) is a generic system, which supports the construction and access of a database; in particular: –sets up a scalable implementation data model –provides a data model (e.g., a relational data model) for defining the schema of a database –provides a basic set of operations for accessing and updating the database (e.g., relational algebra). –offers a variety of other services, such as concurrency control and error recovery.

48 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Semi-structured data Here data have some structure, for example, –HTML/DHTML/XML files –HTML/DHTML/XML files -- consist of text interleaved with HTML formatting commands –Literature files –Literature files -- have a syntax for references, but the “atoms” of that syntax, such as paper titles, are text –Source code files –Source code files -- based on the syntax of some programming language –Electronic Data Interchange transmission –Electronic Data Interchange transmission -- based on standards.

49 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Any GUI, typically a Web page, that supports online shopping, ordering and payment capabilities –A gateway to a gigital version of the business itself (more than a list of products) –Presents a new medium with new capabilities E-catalogs --- Definition

50 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs -- TYPES Stand-alone –Independent Web site, primarily for online retailing (e.g., Amazon) E-mall –Collection of catalogs for different merchants (e.g., Internet shopping network) Embedded –Part of a large corporate web site –Primarily for non-retail (e.g., marketing, customer support) –Corporations using it include HP, Bank of America, etc.

51 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs vs. Traditional catalogs Interactivity –Allow two-way communication channel between Business and Consumer in real time –Allow for the development of new and closer relationships between Business and Consumer Dynamic Updating Capabilities –quickly adapt to market conditions by adapting prices, repackaging, re-channeling, etc. Global Presence –SMEs can enter the global E-marketplace transcending traditional limitations

52 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή E-catalogs -- Functional Features Content –SCOPE: products, services, pricing info, detailed descriptions, links to other resources, etc. –SEARCH and FILTERING Presentation –LAYOUT: spatial arrangement of the catalog and MM use –UI and HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Back-end Processing –Level of Integration (with Company’s databases and legacy systems, with financial institutions) and Interoperability Usage Tracking –Data Warehousing and Data Mining Computational Services –Scalability and Efficiency

53 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Applications: –Inf. brokers –Neg. brokers Architecture: –Controller –WfMS –CoopWARE Infrastructure: –EDI –HTTP –VAN Data mgmt: –DBMS Communication: –HTML TCP/IP –flat files UNIX sockets Architecture for Data Integration

54 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή BUSINESS MODELS -- Current State Most EC Business today are –An online version of traditional models –An extension of physical businesses that are able to reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction –follow a vertical and rigid supply chain

55 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή BUSINESS MODELS -- Emerging Virtual Companies and markets –a consortium of companies build on each others’ businesses to exploit opportunities Open buyer centric markets –comparison shopping Coalition and outsourcing –e.g. in REAL ESTATE: brokers, banks, escrow (εγγυητές), lawyers (for title inspection) Supply chain ---- SUPPLY WEB

56 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή EASY TO LINK WITH OTHER BUSINESSES, CUSTOMERS CAN UPDATE PRODUCT INFORMATION, ORDERING, CUSTOMER SUPPORT ON-LINE STOREFRONTS ENHANCED BUSINESS FORMS INTERNET & ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

57 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή VIRTUAL STOREFRONT: sells goods, services on- line (Amazon, Virtual Vineyards, etc.) MARKETPLACE CONCENTRATOR: concentrates information from several providers InsureMarket, DealerNet, etc.) INFORMATION BROKER: provides product, pricing, availability information Auto-by-Tel, PartNet, etc) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

58 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή TRANSACTION BROKER: buyers view rates, terms from various sources (E*Trade, Ameritrade) ELECTRONIC CLEARINGHOUSE: auction-like setting, products, prices, change in response to demand (Bid.com, OnSale, etc.) REVERSE AUCTION: buyer sets price, submits to multiple sellers (Priceline.com) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

59 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή DIGITAL PRODUCT DELIVERY: sell, download software, other digital products (SonicNet, Build-a-Card, etc.) CONTENT PROVIDER: creates revenue through providing client for a fee, and advertising Tripod, Wall Street Journal, etc.) ON-LINE SERVICE PROVIDER: provides service, support for hardware, software products CyberMedia, Tune Up, etc.) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

60 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή WEB HOSTING SERVICES: provides large servers for Web sites of fee-paying customer ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM: using Web for electronic funds transfers, credit, smart & debit cards ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

61 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή ICAT: on-line catalog shopping, order placement (Icat) NET.COMMERCE: merchant server supporting Secure Electronic Transactions protocol (IBM) MerchantXpert:: search tools, order management, tax, payment, logistics modules (Netscape) Microsoft - Commerce Server 2000 Electronic Commerce Servers

62 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή OPEN MARKET TRANSACT: customer authentication, order & payment processing, tax, multi-language customer service (Open Market) INTERNET COMMERCE SERVER: integrates orders, inventory, customer service, payments (Oracle) Electronic Commerce Services

63 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Supply-Chain Management

64 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Interoperable Commerce HTML, CORBA, EDI –All suffer from one or more of the following limitations: too expensive, too dumb, a private language between 2 partners, a formatting language Need an OPEN framework for Electronic Commerce –Standards is one approach - others include: negotiation protocols, mappings from one to another Need to have a common means to EXCHANGE information between applications required to support EC process flow and fully utilize such components as Databases, EDI, Browsers, Agents, Catalogs, etc... –Users need to be able to search for products using catalogs from multiple suppliers

65 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή Requirements for Interoperable Catalogs [Commerce Net Report 1998] Community Management –enable and control access to the procurement system with authorizations Content Management –enable buyers to find desired items from a very broad and diverse set –create «shopping carts» compatible with general ledger practices –enable procurement officials to review the product ino for compliance Requisition Management (approval of «shopping carts» ) Order and Document Management –convert the «shopping cart» to an order which is transmitted electronically the the right vendors and reconcilliation of accounts Management Reporting –meet reporting needs by end users, professional buyers, supplier personnel


Κατέβασμα ppt "Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Εισαγωγή --- 1 Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2001) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης."

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