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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 9.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 9."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 9

2 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

3 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

4 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ Recall that a dental (τ, δ, θ) followed by a σ yields just a σ. Consequently, when the stem of a third declension noun ends in a dental (τ, δ, θ), the nominative singular and dative plural show σ.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ Thus the forms of λαμπάς, λαμπάδος ὁ “torch” singular Nom. λαμπάς Gen. λαμπάδος Dat. λαμπάδι Acc. λαμπάδα Voc. = nom. plural Nom. λαμπάδες Gen. λαμπάδων Dat. λαμπάσι Acc. λαμπάδας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: λαμπάδς  λαμπάς dat. pl.: λαμπάδσι  λαμπάσι

6 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ A small number of dental stem nouns (those in -ιτ, -ιδ, or -ιθ which accent the first syllable of their stems) show –ν in their accusative singular ending, rather than -α. Thus the forms of χάρις, χάριτος ἡ “grace” singular Nom. χάρις Gen. χάριτος Dat. χάριτι Acc. χάριν Voc. = nom. plural Nom. χάριτες Gen. χαρίτων Dat. χάρισι Acc. χάριτας Voc. = nom.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ A noun with a monosyllabic nominative accents the nominative/accusative/vocative forms on the penult and the genitive/dative forms on the ultima. –See example of νύξ, νυκτός ἡ “night” in Chapter 10.1.

8 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ The noun παῖς, παιδός ὁ/ἡ “child,” however, has irregular accents in the nominative singular and genitive plural. –Otherwise this noun behaves like λαμπάς, λαμπάδος ὁ “torch.”

9 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ Thus the forms of παῖς, παιδός ὁ/ἡ “child” singular Nom. παῖς Gen. παιδός Dat. παιδί Acc. παίδα Voc. παῖ plural Nom. παῖδες Gen. παίδων Dat. παισί Acc. παῖδας Voc. = nom. voc. sg.: παιδ  παι

10 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ Most neuter nouns in the third declension which have stems ending in a dental are of the σῶμα type (which you learned in Chapter 8). singular Nom. σῶμα Gen. σώματος Dat. σώματι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural Nom. σώματα Gen. σωμάτων Dat. σώμασι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 2. αὐτός, intensive use The very common pronoun and adjective αὐτός -ή -ό declines like a regular adjective ( σοφός -ή -όν ), except –the neuter nom/acc singular is αὐτό ( rather than αὐτόν). –it has no vocative forms.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 2. αὐτός, intensive use As an adjective, αὐτός -ή -ό intensifies the noun it modifies when it appears in the predicate position: –ὁ στρατηγὸς αὐτὸς ἄγει τοὺς στρατιώτας. “The general himself leads the soldiers.” –πέμπω τὸν ἄγγελον εἰς αὐτὴν τὴν κώμην. “I send the messenger into the village itself.” –αὐτὸς ἐδίωκε τὸν τέκνον. “He was pursuing the child himself.”

14 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun As a pronoun alone, not modifying a noun, αὐτός -ή -ό in the accusative or dative cases means “him/her/it/them”: –πέμπομεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν κώμην. “We send him into the village.” –ἔγραφον ἐπιστολὴν αὐτῇ. “I was writing a letter to her.”

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun As a pronoun alone, not modifying a noun, αὐτός -ή -ό in the genitive case means “his/hers/its/their”: –οἱ λόγοι αὐτῆς πείθουσι τοὺς πολίτας. “Her words persuade the citizens.” The possessor cannot be the subject of the sentence. –ἡ γυνὴ πείθει τοὺς πολίτας τοῖς λόγοις αὐτῆς. means “The woman persuades the citizens with her (someone else’s) [NEVER “her own”] words.”

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun As a pronoun, αὐτός -ή -ό can refer to another noun in the sentence or passage: –γράφω ἐπιστολὴν καὶ πέμπω αὐτήν. “I write a letter and send it.” –θεραπεύσομεν τὴν θεὰν καὶ πιστεύοσομεν αὐτῇ. “We will honor the goddess and trust her.” but not to the subject of the sentence. –ἡ γυνὴ ἔγραφε ἐπιστολὴν αὐτῇ. means “The woman was writing a letter to her (someone else). [NEVER “to herself”].”

18 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 4. αὐτός, attributive use As an adjective, αὐτός -ή -ό in the attributive position means “same”: –ὁ αὐτὸς στρατηγὸς ἄγει τοὺς στρατιώτας. “The same general leads the soldiers.” –πέμπω τὸν ἄγγελον εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν κώμην. “I send the messenger into the same village.”

20 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision “Elision” refers to sliding sounds together, a phenomenon common in many languages but not normally recorded in written form. Remember, however, that Greek records the sounds of the language, so written Greek records even small changes in pronunciation made by speakers.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision In English, for example, people often say “gonna” for “going to” but rarely write the word “gonna.” In Greek, elision refers to dropping the short vowel at the end of one word when the next word begins with a vowel. When Greek speakers made this elision, the written language shows the elision.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision Conjunctions and two-syllable prepositions (except περί, which never elides) lose their accent when elided: ἀπὸ ἀυτοῦ  ἀπ’ ἀυτοῦ ἡ δὲ οἰκία  ἡ δ’ οἰκία ἀλλὰ ὁ παῖς  ἀλλ’ ὁ παῖς

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision Other words eliding in a final accented syllable move their accent back: κακὰ ἔργα  κάκ’ ἔργα

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision If the second word is a two-syllable enclitic, the enclitic picks up its accent on the ultima: κακὰ ἐστιν  κάκ’ ἐστίν

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 5. Elision If the second word begins with a rough breathing, a newly adjacent consonant will become aspirated ( π  φ, τ  θ, κ  χ ): ἀπὸ ὧν  ἀπ’ ὧν  ἀφ’ ὧν τά τε ὅπλα  τά τ’ ὅπλα  τά θ’ ὅπλα καὶ ὁ  κ’ ὡ (vowel contraction)  χὡ οὐκ οἷοι  οὐχ οἷοι

27 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -τ, -δ, -θ 2. αὐτός, intensive use 3. αὐτός as personal pronoun 4. αὐτός, attributive use 5.Elision 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι A certain idiomatic construction in Greek has three parts: –οἷος, οἵα, οἷον: an adjective meaning “of such a kind” –τε usually elided to τ’: enclitic conjunction meaning “and,” but in this construction omitted in translation. –εἰμί “be,” conjugated normally

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι Taken together, these three words mean “be able” or “can”: –οἷος, οἵα, οἷον: stays nominative, but agrees with the subject in gender and number –τε usually elided to τ’ : omitted in translation. –εἰμί “be,” conjugated according to the person and number required

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 6. οἷος τέ εἰμι Taken together, these three words mean “be able” or “can”: –οἷοί τ’ εἰσι “they (masc.) are able,” “they can” –οἵα τ’ ἐστί “she is able,” “she can” –οἷός τ’ εἶ “you (masc. sing.) are able,” “you can”

31 Persia Lydia

32 Gerard van Honthorst, Croesus and Solon (Kunsthalle museum, Hamburg)

33 “Kleobis and Biton”

34 Tomb of Cyrus the Great ruled Persia c. 557 –530 B.C.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 ὁ δὲ Κροῖσος, ὅτε ἐβασίλευε τῶν Λυδῶν, ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ τοὺς Πέρσας. τὸ γὰρ μαντεῖον ἔπειθεν αὐτόν, ὡς ἐνόμιζε, καταλύειν τὴν τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχήν. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ποταμὸν (τὸ ὄνομά ἐστιν Ἅλυς) διαβαίνει καὶ φθείρει τὴν χώραν, ἔπειτα δὲ τάττει τὸ στρατὶαν εἰς μάχην. (This battle was indecisive.)

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 ὁ δὲ Κροῖσος, ὅτε ἐβασίλευε τῶν Λυδῶν, ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ τοὺς Πέρσας. τὸ γὰρ μαντεῖον ἔπειθεν αὐτόν, ὡς ἐνόμιζε, καταλύειν τὴν τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχήν. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ποταμὸν (τὸ ὄνομά ἐστιν Ἅλυς) διαβαίνει καὶ φθείρει τὴν χώραν, ἔπειτα δὲ τάττει τὸ στρατὶαν εἰς μάχην. (This battle was indecisive.)

37 Persia Lydia Halys River

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 μετὰ δὲ τὴν μάχην, ὁ Κροῖσος φεύγει εἰς τὰς Σάρδις· ἐθέλει γὰρ κήρυκας πέμπειν πρὸς τοὺς συμμάχους. (Before the allies can arrive, Cyrus appears before Sardis with a large army.)

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 μετὰ δὲ τὴν μάχην, ὁ Κροῖσος φεύγει εἰς τὰς Σάρδις· ἐθέλει γὰρ κήρυκας πέμπειν πρὸς τοὺς συμμάχους. (Before the allies can arrive, Cyrus appears before Sardis with a large army.)

40 Persia Lydia Halys River Sardis

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 ἀνάγκη δ’ οὖν τῷ Κύρῳ ἐστὶν ἐξάγειν τὴν στρατιὰν εἰς μάχην. καὶ ὁ Κῦρος αὐτὸς ἀθροίζει τὰς καμήλους καὶ κελεύει στρατιώτας ἀναβαίνειν καὶ ἄγειν αὐτὰς πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Κροίσου ἵππον, τοὺς δὲ πεζοὺς τάττει ὄπισθε τῶν καμήλων, τὴν δὲ ἵππον ὄπισθε τῶν πεζῶν· οἱ γὰρ ἵπποι οὐχ οἷοί τέ εἰσι φέρειν οὔτε τὴν ἰδέαν οὔτε τὴν ὀδμὴν τῶν καμήλων. ἐν δὲ τῇ μάχῃ αἱ κάμηλοι δεινὸν φόβον παρέχουσι τοῖς ἵπποις. οὕτω δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἀναγκάζει τοὺς τοῦ Κροίσου στρατιώτας φεύγειν.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 ἀνάγκη δ’ οὖν τῷ Κύρῳ ἐστὶν ἐξάγειν τὴν στρατιὰν εἰς μάχην. καὶ ὁ Κῦρος αὐτὸς ἀθροίζει τὰς καμήλους καὶ κελεύει στρατιώτας ἀναβαίνειν καὶ ἄγειν αὐτὰς πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Κροίσου ἵππον, τοὺς δὲ πεζοὺς τάττει ὄπισθε τῶν καμήλων, τὴν δὲ ἵππον ὄπισθε τῶν πεζῶν· οἱ γὰρ ἵπποι οὐχ οἷοί τέ εἰσι φέρειν οὔτε τὴν ἰδέαν οὔτε τὴν ὀδμὴν τῶν καμήλων. ἐν δὲ τῇ μάχῃ αἱ κάμηλοι δεινὸν φόβον παρέχουσι τοῖς ἵπποις. οὕτω δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἀναγκάζει τοὺς τοῦ Κροίσου στρατιώτας φεύγειν.

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 9 Cyrus (Persia)Croesus (Lydia) ἵππος κάμηλοιπεζοί

44 Croesus on the pyre (Athenian red-figure, c.490 B.C.) Cyrus the Great (?) relief near Persepolis


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