Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "General Info Jealous Senators -Autopsy -Augustus Speech [not used]"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
1 General InfoJealous Senators-Autopsy-Augustus Speech [not used]-Cassius Speech-Newspaper clippingCaesar Did ItJustified Senators-Tomb Grafitti-Coins-Crossing the Rubicon [not used]-Plutarch Page-Burjstan Vid-Gladiator Testimony-Various Warnings-Caesar’s Will [not used]
2 Agent: Report Filed On: Exhibit A: Ancient Newspaper ArticleWhich group loved Caesar?What two reasons did they love him?Why might this upset the senators?Exhibit B: Ancient ArtifactsWhat does the coin say on it and what does it mean?2. What is carved on the tomb? What does it mean?3. Why might Brutus have felt pressured to stop Caesar?Exhibit C: The Twelve Caesars by PlutarchWhat did Caesar do that insulted the senators?What excuse did he give?What does Plutarch say about the excuse?Exhibit D: Autopsy reportWhat does the autopsy tell us about the number and skill of the attackers?How many attackers do you think there were? Why?Exhibit E: Statement by Caesar’s BodyguardWhy does Tyrannus think Caesar fired him?What did Tyrannus hear from the other guard?Exhibit F: Recording of Senator CassiusWhy does Cassius believe Caesar is no better than him?Does Cassius seem angry enough to murder Caesar? Why or why not?
3 Exhibit G: Various Warnings Exhibit H: Dr. Burzstajn Interview If you had received these same warnings what would you do?Do these warnings seem believable to you? Why or why not?Exhibit H: Dr. Burzstajn InterviewWhat does Dr. Burzstajn think about the note in Caesar’s hand?Why does Dr. Burzstajn think Caesar may have wanted to die this way?(Complete this only after reviewing all the exhibits.)INDICTMENTTHE GRAND JURY CHARGES THAT:DEFENDANT __________________________________ (Write who you believe committed the crime.)IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRIME OF _______________________________________________________________________________.WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING EVIDENCE:(What stations prove your argument? What do they show?Exhibit _____ shows
4 Essential QuestionWhat happened to Julius Caesar?
5 The start of Rome.Rome originally had kings, but the last one was a tyrant.Rome killed their king and started a republic.Romans elected Senators to run the republic.
7 Rome becomes an EmpireAfter winning the wars in Gaul (France) the Senate ordered Julius Caesar to disband his army.Julius Caesar did not want to give up his power so he invaded Rome.He ruled for 5 years before the senators assassinated him.
8 Describe Caesar in 6 words Choose 6 words to describe Caesar for his memorial.
9 COLD CASE FILES CRIME REPORT 16 March, 44 BC On March 15, 44 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar died of multiple stab wounds to the chest. There were many witnesses to the attack but few concrete details could be worked out. We know there were many senators involved in the attack but all fled the scene. The exact motivation and number of attackers is still unknown.There are three options to consider:- The senators assassinated Caesar due to jealousy of his fame.- The senators assassinated Caesar because they thought he was destroying Rome by making himself emperor.- Caesar allowed the assassination to happen because he wanted to die a memorable and heroic death.This case remains unsolved.
10 Senate LawConsider the following question as you look at the next slide.What law did Caesar break?
11 The following laws were accepted regarding the Roman Army: 6th Senate4th SessionIN THE SENATESome random bc dateThe following laws were accepted regarding the Roman Army:“Be it enacted that the following shall apply to all generals in the Roman army into the future.I. All men shall serve involuntary terms of no more than twenty years.II. No general may lead his army beyond the river Rubicon and into the lands of Italy.i. Any general who leads his troops beyond the river shall be considered a traitor against the Republic.ii. Soldiers who are led across the Rubicon are not bound to the commands of their general, instead they are bound to the commands of Roman law.III. Any soldier guilty of desertion will have his entire unit subject to decimation in addition to the regular penalty of death.”Not currently part of the lab.
13 Senate Law Take a minute to think and then write your answer. What law did Caesar break?
14 Exhibit A: Ancient Newspaper Which group loved Caesar?What two reasons did they love him for?How would the Senators feel about this?
15 CAESAR OUR HERO FOR SALE ANNUAL GAMES CALLED SUCCESS THE ROMAN RECORD THURSDAY, NOV. 17, 43 BCCAESAR OUR HEROFOR SALELicinius GaxusRome CorrespondantROME- A recent poll put Julius Caesar’s approval rating among the lower class at an incredible 82%. Analysis of the poll shows two main reasons why the people love him so much.First, unsurprisingly, is that Caesar gave many in the lower class money after a recent war. Senator Cassius remarked “This is an obvious case of bribery. He wants their support so he paid them off.” His arguments clearly did not matter to the lower class.One lightly used chariot. Never used in battle. Only used for light training. Don’t miss out on this chance to join in on the latest craze.Contact Jacinus Tacitus for pricing information and for further details.Secondly, Caesar’s incredible war record over the barbarians has brought peace and safety that Rome hasn’t seen in decades. “Without the attacks we can finally work in peace” said one local merchant.Cont.on B-4ANNUAL GAMES CALLED SUCCESSSocratian PompusSports DeskIn a surprise, the winner of this year’s gladiatorial games was none other than disgraced former general Commodus. Commodus shocked his opponents with incredible sword skills and a desire to win unmatched in the arena. “I had something to prove” Commodus later said. “I did not want to be remember as the great general who was but the fighter who is.”
16 Exhibit A: Ancient Newspaper Which group loved Caesar?What two reasons did they love him for?How would the Senators feel about this?
17 Exhibit B: Ancient Artifacts 1. What does the coin say on it and what does it mean? 2. What is written on the tomb and what does it mean? 3. Why might Brutus have felt pressured to stop Caesar?
18 -Include the Caesar “dictator” coin Options: point out the carvings with arrows –or- have students attempt to find it “Where’s Waldo?” styleCaesar was very popular among the poor but many in Rome did not want a return to rule by one man. Caesar made coins with his image and the words “dictator for life” printed on them. No living leader had ever been put on a Roman coin. Many felt this action proved he planned to one day rule as king.Roman legend says that 600 years before Caesar a distant ancestor of Senator Brutus (a close friend of Caesar’s) killed off Rome’s last king leading to the beginning of the republic. This legend was still on the mind’s of the people as Caesar rose in power. This man’s tomb was covered with graffiti as well but not praising Caesar. Instead, this graffiti demanded that Brutus follow his ancestor and kill Caesar. The Latin phrase “SERVO RES PUBLICA” (Save the republic) was carved into the walls of the tomb in multiple places as seen above. It appears many people, not just a few jealous senators, wanted Caesar removed from power.
19 Exhibit B: Ancient Artifacts 1. What does the coin say on it and what does it mean? 2. What is written on the tomb and what does it mean? 3. Why might Brutus have felt pressured to stop Caesar?
20 Four CornersA – The Senate killed Caesar because they were jealous of him.B – The Senate killed Caesar to protect the Republic.C – Caesar let himself be killed.D- You have your own opinion.BE READY TO SHARE
21 Exhibit C: The Twelve Caesars by Plutarch What did Caesar do to insult the Senators?What excuse did he give?What did Plutarch say about Caesar’s excuse?
22 HE MOST OPEN AND DEADLY HATRED towards Caesar was produced by his desire for royal power. For most Senators this was a first cause of hatred, and for those who had long hidden their hate, aUseful excuse for it. Once, after returning from battle the Senators attempted to honor Caesar with a gift. He would not even stand up to receive it. His refusal to stand for the Senate led to great controversy. Caesar was suffering from a type of mental illness and when he realized how he had offended them he stood up, drew back his toga to show his neck and yelled “kill me now, I won’t resist!”But afterwards he made his disease an excuse for his behavior, saying that those with his mental illness do not usually remain steady when they stand and speak to many people and that he would be greatly embarrassed if that happened. However, what he said was not true; actually he was very much wanted to rise to receive the senate; but one of his friends, as they say, or rather one of his flatterers, Cornelius Balbus, stopped him, saying: "Remember that you are Caesar, and you should be seen as their superior.The Twelve Caesarsby PlutarchP. 247
23 Exhibit C: The Twelve Caesars by Plutarch What did Caesar do to insult the Senators?What excuse did he give?What did Plutarch say about Caesar’s excuse?
24 ιο ανοιχτή και θανατηφόρα μίσος απέναντί του έχει παραχθεί από το πάθος του για τη βασιλική εξουσία. Για την πληθώρα αυτή ήταν μια πρώτη αιτία του μίσους, αλλά και για όσους είχαν πνιγμένα καιρό το μίσος τους, μια πιο τρελάγια αυτό. Ωστόσο, ως Καίσαρας ερχόταν κάτω από το στην πόλη που τόλμησε να φωνάξει αυτόν ως βασιλιά. Αλλά σε αυτό τον λαό ήταν κατέρριψε, και Καίσαρα, διαταραχές στο μυαλό, δήλωσε ότι το όνομά του δεν ήταν βασιλιάς, αλλά Καίσαρα, και βλέποντας ότι τα λόγια του, εκπόνησε μια καθολική σιωπή, πέρασε σχετικά με όχι πολύ χαρούμενα ή ευχαριστημένος βλέμματα. Επιπλέον, μετά από εξωφρενικές τιμές του είχε ψηφίσει η γερουσία δεν είχε δημιουργήσει για την υποδοχή τους, αλλά σαν να επρόκειτο για απλή ιδιώτες, απάντησε ότι τιμά του έπρεπε να συρρικνωμένο και όχι διευρυμένη. Αυτό όχι μόνο επίμαχο ζήτημα της Συγκλήτου, αλλά και οι άνθρωποι, οι οποίοι θεώρησαν ότι δεν είναι μόνο οι γερουσιαστές, αλλά η κατάσταση ήταν προσβεβλημένος, και μια τρομερή κατήφεια πήγαν μακριά ταυτόχρονα, όλους εκείνους που δεν ήταν υποχρεωμένοι να παραμείνουν, ότι Καίσαρα πάρα πολύ, όταν ήταν ενήμερη για το λάθος του, αμέσως στράφηκαν για να πάει στο σπίτι, καθώς και την κατάρτιση πλάτη τήβεννος του από το λαιμό του, φώναξε δυνατά σε τόνους στους φίλους του ότι ήταν έτοιμος να προσφέρει το λαιμό του σε όποιον ήθελε να τον σκοτώσει. Αλλά στη συνέχεια έκανε την ασθένειά του μια δικαιολογία για τη συμπεριφορά του, λέγοντας ότι οι αισθήσεις όσων είναι ως εκ τούτου πλήττονται συνήθως δεν παραμένουν σταθερές, όταν η διεύθυνση μιας μόνιμης πλήθος, αλλά γρήγορα ανακινείται και περιστρεφόμενων περίπου, φέρνοντας σε ίλιγγος και αναισθησία. Ωστόσο, αυτό που είπε δεν ήταν αλήθεια? Αντιθέτως, ήταν πολύ επιθυμώντας να αυξάνεται για να λαμβάνετε τις γερουσία? Αλλά ένας από τους φίλους του, όπως λένε, ή μάλλον ένας από τους κόλακες του, Κορνήλιος Balbus, τον συγκρατημένη, λέγοντας: " Να θυμάστε ότι εσύ τέχνη Καίσαρα, και να επιτρέψουν σεαυτον να φλερτάρει ως ανώτερο. "
25 Date: ______________ Signature: ___________________ Office of the Medical ExaminerXXII Romulus RoadRome, Roman RepublicREPORT OF INVESTIGATION BY THE MEDICAL EXAMINERNAME: Gaius Julius Caesar SEX: male AGE: 55CAUSE OF DEATH:(mark one only)xviolentsuicidesuddensuspicious, unusual or unnaturalInvestigating Agency: FBI (unsolved crimes division)Figure 1 shows a mapping of the 23 puncture wounds found on the body of the victim in what I believe is the order of infliction. The random placement of the wounds indicates many attackers crowded around the victim. Of the 23 wounds only wound two would have been fatal as it punctured the victim’s heart. This indicates the attackers were likely not experienced.Multiple wounds to the back indicate multiple attackers surrounding the victim for a simultaneous attack. It may also indicate that some wounds were inflicted while the victim lay on the ground.The victim would have died quickly but not instantly. It is very possible he could have gotten off a few last words before death.Figure 1PROBABLE CAUSE OF DEATH MANNER OF DEATHBlood loss from a direct puncture wound to the heart.naturalsuicidexhomicideaccidentunknownI hereby declare that after receiving notice of the death described above I took possession of the body and made inquiries regarding the cause of death in accordance with SectionDate: ______________ Signature: ___________________
26 Transcript of secret recording of Senator Cassius 3 January, 44 B.C.[Cassius first explains his argument is about honor. Some in Rome have claimed Caesar to be a god and Cassius finds this insulting as he feels he is just as good a man as Caesar.]Well, honor is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men think of this life; but, for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be in awe of such a thing as I myself. I was born free as Caesar; so were you: we both have fed as well, and we can both endure the winter's cold as well as he.[Cassius will now describe an event which he feels proves Caesar’s humanity by showing he was once saved by Cassius.]For once, upon a raw and gusty day, the troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, Caesar said to me 'darest thou, Cassius, now leap in with me into this angry flood, and swim to yonder point?' Upon the word, accoutered as I was, I plunged in and bade him follow; so indeed he did. The torrent roared, and we did buffet it with lusty sinews, throwing it aside and stemming it with hearts of controversy; but ere we could arrive the point proposed, Caesar cried 'Help me, Cassius, or I sink!' I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor, did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber did I the tired Caesar.[Cassius continues his frustration, clearly angry about Caesar’s status as a living god and his own, powerless, status. He gives another example of Caesar’s weakness here.]And this man is now become a god, and Cassius is a wretched creature and must bend his body, if Caesar carelessly but nod on him. He had a fever when he was in Spain, and when the fit was on him, I did mark how he did shake: 'tis true, this god did shake; his coward lips did from their color fly, and that same eye whose bend doth awe the world did lose his luster. I did hear him groan: ay, and that tongue of his that bade the Romans mark him and write his speeches in their books, alas, it cried 'Give me some drink, Titinius,' as a sick girl.[After a number of insults Cassius makes his final statement that he is shocked Caesar has been given this power.]Ye gods, it doth amaze me a man of such a feeble temper should so get the start of the majestic world and bear the palm alone.Goes along with mp3: Cassius 1.5
27 Exhibit D: various warnings If you had received these warnings what would you have done?Do these warnings seem believable to you? Why or why not?
28 Warning from Calpurnia, Caesar’s Wife Caesar was warned repeatedly about a possible attack. He in fact delayed his visit to the Senate many times because of it. Here are two of the warnings.Warning from Calpurnia, Caesar’s Wife“My Lord! I have had a terrible nightmare! I saw myself holding your bloody body crying. Please, I beg of you, stay home. Tell them you are sick. Do not go to the Senate today!”Warning from Spurina, Fortune-Teller“The oracles tell of blood on this day, the Ides of March. Caesar, you must be careful.”He ignored them and went. That very day he was given a note giving specific details about the attack.To add: The evening before the Senate meeting Caesar is reported to have been at dinner with Marcus Ledi-dus. At the meal Marcus asked “What kind of death in best?” to which Caesar immediately cried out “A sudden one!”Note found in Caesar’s Hand after the Assassination
29 Translation 15 March Great Caesar, My lord, you must not attend the meeting at the senate today. I have heard of a great conspiracy among the senators to take your very life. While I do not know the names of those involved I know there are many. If you go to the senate today as planned you will surely be murdered. There are men in the senate who are jealous of your power my lord and will do anything to stop you from taking your rightful place as ruler. Please, do not go to the senate today.Currently 5 x7
30 Exhibit D: various warnings If you had received these warnings what would you have done?Do these warnings seem believable to you? Why or why not?
31 Four CornersA – The Senate killed Caesar because they were jealous of him.B – The Senate killed Caesar to protect the Republic.C – Caesar let himself be killed.D- You have your own opinion.BE READY TO SHARE
32 Exhibit E: bodyguard’s statement Why did Tyrannus think Caesar fired him?What did Tyrannus hear from the other guard?
33 Marcelus Cicero Court of Rome AO94 – Statement of DefenseCourt of RomeRepublic of Rome vs. Senator CassiusCase Number: 12Witness statement given by Tyrannus, one of Caesar’s bodyguards“Three days before the assassination Caesar fired me along with all of his other bodyguards. He told us he would be traveling on his own. We insisted that he keep us around to protect him. I don’t know what he was thinking. Maybe he was beginning to believe that he truly was a god and nobody could hurt him anyway or maybe he was just simply tired of being followed all the time. This was especially strange based on the threats that we heard from Cassius.One of the other guards told me he heard Caesar say that he didn’t want to live any more because of his sickness. I don’t know if this is true or not but either way it seems very odd. For days he had delayed his visit to the Senate due to all the warnings. And yet, only three days before he does go he gives up his protection?”SWORN TO before me this 18th day of March, 44 B.C.Marcelus CiceroRoman District Judge
34 Exhibit E: bodyguard’s statement Why did Tyrannus think Caesar fired him?What did Tyrannus hear from the other guard?
35 IndictmentNow that you have seen all the evidence write an indictment. Did the senators do the right thing by assassinating Caesar?Option: provide indictment against the senate and, as judge, decide whether it is legit.
36 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA Investigator: Date filed:INDICTMENTTHE GRAND JURY CHARGES THAT:DEFENDANT __________________________________ (Write the name of who you believe committed the crime.)IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRIME OF _______________________________________________________________________________.WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING EVIDENCE:(What stations prove your argument? What do they show?Exhibit _____ shows
37 Present your indictment 1234PresentationPoor posture, constant fidgeting, hiding your face, and inaudible volume.Not always standing straight, fidgeting often, no eye contact, and usually uses a loud voice.Standing up straight, with a little fidgeting, minimal eye contact, and in a loud voice.Stand up straight, no fidgeting, constant eye contact, and speaking in a clear and loud voice.Use of evidenceNo evidence is used.Evidence is used, but incorrectly.Evidence is used to support your case.All of level 3 and also addresses issues with other arguments
38 VocabularyTyrant – a ruler who has total power and acts brutally Republic – A government ruled by a group of officials like the United States. Dictator – a ruler appointed by the senate with total power in emergency
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