Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

ΦΟΙΤΗΤΡΙΑ: ΓΚΙΚΑ ΕΛΕΝΗ ΜΑΘΗΜΑ: ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΥΠΕΥΘ. ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ.: ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΚΟΥΡΕΤΑΣ ΣΧΕΣΗ ΜΕΤΑΞΥ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΜΦΑΝΙΣΗΣ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας Σχολή.

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "ΦΟΙΤΗΤΡΙΑ: ΓΚΙΚΑ ΕΛΕΝΗ ΜΑΘΗΜΑ: ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΥΠΕΥΘ. ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ.: ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΚΟΥΡΕΤΑΣ ΣΧΕΣΗ ΜΕΤΑΞΥ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΜΦΑΝΙΣΗΣ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας Σχολή."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 ΦΟΙΤΗΤΡΙΑ: ΓΚΙΚΑ ΕΛΕΝΗ ΜΑΘΗΜΑ: ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΥΠΕΥΘ. ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ.: ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΚΟΥΡΕΤΑΣ ΣΧΕΣΗ ΜΕΤΑΞΥ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΜΦΑΝΙΣΗΣ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας Τμήμα Βιοχημείας και Βιοτεχνολογίας

2 ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΣ Ομάδα >100 ασθενειών Δεύτερη ασθένεια παγκοσμίως 2/3 οφείλεται σε περιβαλλοντικούς παράγοντες, συμπ. της διατροφής Συνήθως εμφανίζεται σε μεγαλύτερες ηλικίες Καρκίνωμα: καρκίνος σε επιθηλιακά κύτταρα της επιφάνειας του σώματος Αδενοκαρκίνωμα: καρκίνος σε αδενικούς ιστούς Σάρκωμα: ο καρκίνος στα κόκκαλα και μύες Ενεργοποίηση ογκογονιδίων και ανενεργοποίηση ογκοκατασταλτικών γονιδίων

3 ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΓΕΝΕΣΗ Πολυσταδιακό μοντέλο 1 ο στάδιο: μύηση (initiation) 2 ο στάδιο: προαγωγή (promotion) 3 ο στάδιο: εξέλιξη (progression)

4 ΑΙΤΙΕΣ ΕΜΦΑΝΙΣΗΣ Ενδογενείς παράγοντες Κληρονομήσιμες μεταλλάξεις Οξειδωτικός στρες Φλεγμονή Επιγενετικές τροποποιήσεις Ορμόνες Εξωγενείς παράγοντες Κάπνισμα Μολυσματικοί παράγοντες Φαρμακευτική αγωγή Ακτινοβολία Βιοχημικά και αγροτικά προϊόντα Καρκινογόνοι παράγοντες της διατροφής

5 ΜΕΤΑΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΓΟΝΩΝ Πολλά καρκινογόνα απαιτούν την ενεργοποίηση τους για να δράσουν. Μεταβολισμός φάσης Ι κυτόχρωμα Ρ450 Μεταβολισμός φάσης ΙΙ αντιοξειδωτικοί μηχανισμοί

6 ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ Καρκινικός πολλαπλασιασμός Αυτονομία καρκινικών κυττάρων σε αυξητικούς παράγοντες Αναισθησία σε αντιαναπτυξιακά σήματα Απεριόριστη ικανότητα πολλαπλασιασμού Διαρκής αναστολή απόπτωσης Αγγειογένεση Ιστική εξάπλωση και μετάσταση

7 ΚΥΤΤΑΡΙΚΟΣ ΚΥΚΛΟΣ

8 ΧΗΜΕΙΟΠΡΟΛΗΨΗ (CHEMOPREVENTION) Η χρήση φυσικών ουσιών, οι οποίες μπορούν να αναστείλουν, να αντιστρέψουν ή να επιβραδύνουν την καρκινογένεση. Ανάλογα με το είδος τους μπορούν να δράσουν σε όλα τα στάδια του καρκίνου.

9 ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΜΕΤΑΞΥ ΧΗΜΙΟΠΡΟΛΗΠΤΙΚΩΝ ΟΥΣΙΩΝ

10 ΜΕΘΟΔΟΙ ΜΕΛΕΤΗΣ Οικολογικές μελέτες (ecological studies) Μελέτες μετανάστευσης (migrant studies) Μελέτες περιπτώσεως-ελέγχου (case-control studies) Μελέτες ομάδων (cohort studies) Τυχαιοποιημένες ελεγχόμενες δοκιμές (randomized controlled trials) Μετα-αναλύσεις (meta-analysis) Εργαστηριακές μελέτες (experimental studies)

11 ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΙΚΑ ΠΡΟΤΥΠΑ Μεσογειακή διατροφή Δυτικό πρότυπο διατροφής Χορτοφαγική διατροφή

12 ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΚΑ Σιτάρι, ρύζι, καλαμπόκι, κεχρί, ζαχαρόχορτο, κριθάρι, βρώμη και σίκαλη. Η σύστασή τους επηρεάζεται από το βαθμό επεξεργασίας τους. Περιέχουν φυτικές ίνες, βιταμίνες Β, Ε, έλαια, πρωτεΐνες, σίδηρο, ιχνοστοιχεία, φυτοχημικά Προστατεύουν ενάντια στην εμφάνιση καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου, του στόματος, του οισοφάγου και του στομάχου. Ίσως σχετίζονται με την εμφάνιση καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου, του στήθους, του ήπατος και θυρεοειδή (επεξεργασμένη μορφή) Προτεινόμενοι Μηχανισμοί Αραίωση και αύξηση κοπράνων, μείωση χρόνου μεταφοράς. Ύπαρξη αφλατοξινών και φουμανισινών μειωμένος GL, GI, βελτίωση ευασθησίας σε ινσουλίνη Δρουν σε επίπεδο ορμονών Ύπαρξη πολλών φυτοχημικών

13 ΦΡΟΥΤΑ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΧΑΝΙΚΑ, ΟΣΠΡΙΑ, ΞΗΡΟΙ ΚΑΡΠΟΙ Παραδείγματα: πιπεριές, ντομάτες, κολοκύθες, πράσινα φυλλώδη λαχανικά, σταυρανθή λαχανικά, μήλο, πορτοκάλια, φασόλια, φακές, καρύδια, φουντούκια κ.ά Η σύσταση τους εξαρτάται από το είδος, το περιβάλλον, την καλλιέργεια, την παραγωγή και τις συνθήκες αποθήκευσης. Βιταμίνες, μέταλλα, φυτικές ίνες, φυτοχημικά, έλαια, λιπαρά, αρωματικές ουσίες κ.ά Η βιοδιαθεσιμότητα τους επηρεάζεται από τον τρόπο μαγειρέματος. Προστατεύουν από την εμφάνιση καρκίνου του στόματος, του φάρυγγα, του λάρυγγα, του οισοφάγου, του πνεύμονα και του στομάχου. Ίσως ενάντια στον καρκίνο του παγκρέατος, του ήπατος και του παχέος εντέρου. Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Ύπαρξη πολλών αντιοξειδωτικών ουσιών κι άλλα βιοδραστικά φυτοχημικά.

14 ΚΟΥΡΚΟΥΜΙΝΗ Πολυφαινόλη Χρήση ως καλλυντικό, μπαχαρικό και βότανο Σημαντικές αντικαρκινικές ιδιότητες Προτεινόμενοι μηχανισμοί Αναστέλλει τον καρκινικό πολλαπλασιασμό δρώντας σε κυκλίνες, CDKs Ακινητοποιεί το κύτταρο στη φάση G2/M Αναστέλλει την ανάπτυξη όγκων Επάγει την απόπτωση

15 ΦΥΛΛΙΚΟ ΟΞΥ Βιταμίνη Β Σύνθεση πυριμιδών και πουρινών Βρίσκεται σε συκώτι, σπανάκι, σταφύλλια, πορτοκάλια, παπάγια Προστατεύει ενάντια στον καρκίνο του παγκρέατος, του οισοφάγου και του παχέος εντέρου Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Αναστολή επιγενετικών τροποποιήσεων (δότης μεθυλομάδων)

16 ΣΕΛΗΝΙΟ Μέταλλο Βρίσκεται σε ψάρι, φιστίκια, δημητριακά ολικής άλεσης, ηλιόσπορους Συστατικό των σεληνοπρωτεϊνών (αντιοξειδωτικά ένζυμα) Προστατεύει ενάντια σε πολλές μορφές καρκίνου Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Ενάντια σε οξειδωτικό στρες, φλεγμονή, πολλαπλασιασμό, αγγειογένεση, παραγωγή τεστοστερόνης, ανοσολογικές αποκρίσεις, μεταβολισμό των λιπιδίων

17 ICTS

18 ΚΟΚΚΙΝΟ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΕΞΕΡΓΑΣΜΕΝΟ ΚΡΕΑΣ, ΠΟΥΛΕΡΙΚΑ, ΨΑΡΙ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΓΑ Σύσταση: κορεσμένα και ακόρεστα λιπαρά, βιταμίνες Β, D, σίδηρος, ψευδάργυρος, σελήνιο κ.ά Υψηλές θερμοκρασίες δημιουργούν καρκινογόνα Σχετίζονται με την εμφάνιση καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου, του οισοφάγου, του πνεύμονα, του παγκρέατος, του ενδομητρίου. Τα ψάρια προστατεύουν ενάντια στην εμφάνιση καρκίνου Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Ύπαρξη καρκινογόνων Ελεύθερος σίδηρος Σχέση ω6:ω3 λιπαρά οξέα

19 ΓΑΛΑ ΚΑΙ ΓΑΛΑΚΤΟΚΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΡΟΙΟΝΤΑ Σύσταση: πρωτεΐνες, λιπαρά, βιταμίνες και μέταλλα Προστατεύουν ενάντια του καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου, του παγκρέατος Συσχέτιση με καρκίνο του παχέος εντέρου, και ποοστάτη Μηχανισμός δράσης Ύπαρξη προβιοτικών Αυξημένα κορεσμένα λιπαρά, αύξηση IGF-1 Ύπαρξη ορμονών

20 ΛΙΠΑΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΕΛΑΙΑ Σημαντική η αναλογία ω3-ω6 λιπαρά οξέα Ο τρόπος μαγειρέματος επηρεάζει τη δομή και τη σύσταση τους Σχετίζονται με καρκίνο του πνεύμονα, του στήθους, του παχέος εντέρου Προτεινόμενοι μηχανισμοί Δρουν σε ορμονικό επίπεδο Επηρεάζουν τη δομή των μεμβρανών και τη σηματοδότηση των κυττάρων

21 ΕΛΑΙΟΛΑΔΟ Ολεϊκό οξύ Το ελαιόλαδο προστατεύει από την εμφάνιση καρκίνου Ύπαρξη αντιοξειδωτικών και σκουαλενίου

22 ΖΑΧΑΡΗ ΚΑΙ ΑΛΑΤΙ Χρήση ως συντηρητικά, προσθετικά Σχετίζονται με την εμφάνιση καρκίνου παχέος εντέρου και στομάχου, αλλά και λάρυγγα. Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Αύξηση σωματικού βάρους παχυσαρκία (έμμεση δράση) Δημιουργία βλαβών στα τοιχώματα στομάχου και φλεγμονή

23 ΝΕΡΟ, ΤΣΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΦΕΣ Σημαντικό στοιχείο, απαραίτητο για τη ζωή Σημαντική η πρόσβαση σε καθαρό και πόσιμο νερό Μπορεί να περιέχει μολυσματικούς παράγοντες και χημικά, όπως το αρσενικό Τσάι: κατεχίνες, όπως EGCG Καφές: καφεΐνη Προστατεύουν από τον καρκίνο δρώντας σε όλα τα στάδια του καρκίνου Σχετίζονται με καρκίνο του οισοφάγου Προτεινόμενος μηχανισμός Υψηλές θερμοκρασίες, τραυματισμός του βλεννογόνου Ύπαρξη αντιοξειδωτικών ουσιών

24 ΑΛΚΟΟΛΟΥΧΑ ΠΟΤΑ Αιθανόλη Ενεργός μεταβολίτης η ακεταλδεΰδη Σύσταση: φαινόλες, πολυφαινόλες, βιταμίνες, φυτοχημικά Κόκκινο κρασί προστατεύει ενάντια σε χρόνια νοσήματα Σχετίζονται με την εμφάνιση καρκίνου του στόματος, του λάρυγγα, του φάρυγγα, του οισοφάγου, του ήπατος, του στήθους και του παχέος εντέρου. Προτεινόμενοι μηχανισμοί Ακεταλδεΰδη Δρα σε ορμονικό επίπεδο Ύπαρξη ηπατικών ασθενειών Αυξηση σωματικού βάρους Έλλειψη θρεπτικών

25 ΣΥΜΠΛΗΡΩΜΑΤΑ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ Σύσταση: σελήνιο, ασβέστιο, β-καροτένιο, βιταμίνες, μέταλλα, βότανα κι άλλα φυτοχημικά Φαινόμενο της όρμωσης Σχετίζονται με τον καρκίνο του δέρματος, του πνεύμονα,, του προστάτη Προστατεύουν ενάντια στον καρκίνο του προστάτη, του παχέος εντέρου και του πνεύμονα

26 ΘΗΛΑΣΜΟΣ Μητρικό γάλα πλούσιο σε θρεπτικά Προστατεύει τόσο το μωρό όσο και τη μητέρα Προστατεύει ενάντια στην παχυσαρκία Προστατεύει ενάντια στον καρκίνο του στήθος Προτεινόμενοι μηχανισμοί Δρα σε ορμονικό επίπεδο Απολέπιση και επαγωγή της απόπτωσς των προκαρκινικών κυττάρων Θετική σχέση με την εμφάνιση καρκίνου όταν το γάλα περιέχει αφλατοξίνες ή άλλα καρκινογόνα.

27 ΣΩΜΑΤΙΚΟ ΛΙΠΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΧΥΣΑΡΚΙΑ Η παχυσαρκία αποκτά διαστάσεις επιδημίας στις μέρες μας. Εμφανίζεται σε μικρούς και μεγάλους ΒΜΙ=kg/m 2 Θετική σχέση με εμφάνιση καρκίνου οισοφάγου, παγκρέατος, παχέος εντέρου, στήθους, ενδομητρίου, νεφρού, αλλά και χοληδόχου κύστης και ήπατος. Προτεινόμενοι μηχανισμοί Δράση σε επίπεδο ορμονών Ανάπτυξη φλεγμονωδών αποκρίσεων Δημιουργία χολολιθών Αύξηση κινδύνου διαβήτη ΙΙ ανοχή στην ινσουλίνη υπερινσουλιναιμία αύξηση κινδύνου εμφάνισης καρκίνου

28 ΠΡΟΛΗΠΤΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΣΤΑΣΕΙΣ 1. Μείνε όσο πιο λεπτός μπορείς μέσα στα όρια του φυσιολογικού σωματικού βάρους. 2. Να είσαι όσο πιο δραστήριος μπορείς στην καθημερινή σου ζωή. 3. Περιόρισε την κατανάλωση τροφών υψηλής ενεργειακής πυκνότητας και απέφυγε τα σακχαρώδη ποτά. 4. Να καταναλώνεις όσα περισσότερα φαγητά φυτικής προέλευσης μπορείς. 5. Να περιορίσεις όσο το δυνατό περισσότερο την κατανάλωση κόκκινου και επεξεργασμένου κρέατος. 6. Να περιορίσεις την κατανάλωση αλκοολούχων ποτών. 7. Να περιορίσεις την κατανάλωση αλατιού και να αποφεύγεται η κατανάλωση μουχλιασμένων δημητριακών ή οσπρίων. 8. Να αποφεύγεις τα συμπληρώματα διατροφής. 9. Να συνιστάται θηλασμός στα νεογνά. 10. Οι ασθενείς που είχαν ή έχουν καρκίνο πρέπει να ακολουθούν τις παραπάνω συστάσεις, εκτός κι αν ο γιατρός τους τους προτείνει να μην το κάνουν.

29 ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΣΜΑΤΑ

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