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Exhibit G: Various Warnings Exhibit H: Dr. Burzstajn Interview

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1 Exhibit G: Various Warnings Exhibit H: Dr. Burzstajn Interview
If you had received these same warnings what would you do? Do these warnings seem believable to you? Why or why not? Exhibit H: Dr. Burzstajn Interview What does Dr. Burzstajn think about the note in Caesar’s hand? Why does Dr. Burzstajn think Caesar may have wanted to die this way? (Complete this only after reviewing all the exhibits.) INDICTMENT THE GRAND JURY CHARGES THAT: DEFENDANT __________________________________ (Write who you believe committed the crime.) IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRIME OF _______________________ ________________________________________________________. WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING EVIDENCE: (What stations prove your argument? What do they show? Exhibit _____ shows

On March 15, 44 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar died of multiple stab wounds to the chest. There were many witnesses to the attack but few concrete details could be worked out. We know there were many senators involved in the attack but all fled the scene. The exact motivation and number of attackers is still unknown. There are three options to consider: - The senators assassinated Caesar due to jealousy of his fame. - The senators assassinated Caesar because they thought he was destroying Rome by making himself emperor. - Caesar allowed the assassination to happen because he wanted to die a memorable and heroic death. This case remains unsolved.

THE ROMAN RECORD THURSDAY, NOV. 17, 43 BC CAESAR OUR HERO FOR SALE Licinius Gaxus Rome Correspondant ROME- A recent poll put Julius Caesar’s approval rating among the lower class at an incredible 82%. Analysis of the poll shows two main reasons why the people love him so much. First, unsurprisingly, is that Caesar gave many in the lower class money after a recent war. Senator Cassius remarked “This is an obvious case of bribery. He wants their support so he paid them off.” His arguments clearly did not matter to the lower class. One lightly used chariot. Never used in battle. Only used for light training. Don’t miss out on this chance to join in on the latest craze. Contact Jacinus Tacitus for pricing information and for further details. Secondly, Caesar’s incredible war record over the barbarians has brought peace and safety that Rome hasn’t seen in decades. “Without the attacks we can finally work in peace” said one local merchant. Cont.on B-4 ANNUAL GAMES CALLED SUCCESS Socratian Pompus Sports Desk In a surprise, the winner of this year’s gladiatorial games was none other than disgraced former general Commodus. Commodus shocked his opponents with incredible sword skills and a desire to win unmatched in the arena. “I had something to prove” Commodus later said. “I did not want to be remember as the great general who was but the fighter who is.”

4 -Include the Caesar “dictator” coin
Options: point out the carvings with arrows –or- have students attempt to find it “Where’s Waldo?” style Caesar was very popular among the poor but many in Rome did not want a return to rule by one man. Caesar made coins with his image and the words “dictator for life” printed on them. No living leader had ever been put on a Roman coin. Many felt this action proved he planned to one day rule as king. Roman legend says that 600 years before Caesar a distant ancestor of Senator Brutus (a close friend of Caesar’s) killed off Rome’s last king leading to the beginning of the republic. This legend was still on the mind’s of the people as Caesar rose in power. This man’s tomb was covered with graffiti as well but not praising Caesar. Instead, this graffiti demanded that Brutus follow his ancestor and kill Caesar. The Latin phrase “SERVO RES PUBLICA” (Save the republic) was carved into the walls of the tomb in multiple places as seen above. It appears many people, not just a few jealous senators, wanted Caesar removed from power.

5 HE MOST OPEN AND DEADLY HATRED towards Caesar was produced by his desire for royal power. For most Senators this was a first cause of hatred, and for those who had long hidden their hate, a Useful excuse for it. Once, after returning from battle the Senators attempted to honor Caesar with a gift. He would not even stand up to receive it. His refusal to stand for the Senate led to great controversy. Caesar was suffering from a type of mental illness and when he realized how he had offended them he stood up, drew back his toga to show his neck and yelled “kill me now, I won’t resist!” But afterwards he made his disease an excuse for his behavior, saying that those with his mental illness do not usually remain steady when they stand and speak to many people and that he would be greatly embarrassed if that happened. However, what he said was not true; actually he was very much wanted to rise to receive the senate; but one of his friends, as they say, or rather one of his flatterers, Cornelius Balbus, stopped him, saying: "Remember that you are Caesar, and you should be seen as their superior. The Twelve Caesars by Plutarch P. 247

6 ιο ανοιχτή και θανατηφόρα μίσος απέναντί του έχει παραχθεί από το πάθος του για τη βασιλική εξουσία. Για την πληθώρα αυτή ήταν μια πρώτη αιτία του μίσους, αλλά και για όσους είχαν πνιγμένα καιρό το μίσος τους, μια πιο τρελά για αυτό. Ωστόσο, ως Καίσαρας ερχόταν κάτω από το στην πόλη που τόλμησε να φωνάξει αυτόν ως βασιλιά. Αλλά σε αυτό τον λαό ήταν κατέρριψε, και Καίσαρα, διαταραχές στο μυαλό, δήλωσε ότι το όνομά του δεν ήταν βασιλιάς, αλλά Καίσαρα, και βλέποντας ότι τα λόγια του, εκπόνησε μια καθολική σιωπή, πέρασε σχετικά με όχι πολύ χαρούμενα ή ευχαριστημένος βλέμματα. Επιπλέον, μετά από εξωφρενικές τιμές του είχε ψηφίσει η γερουσία δεν είχε δημιουργήσει για την υποδοχή τους, αλλά σαν να επρόκειτο για απλή ιδιώτες, απάντησε ότι τιμά του έπρεπε να συρρικνωμένο και όχι διευρυμένη. Αυτό όχι μόνο επίμαχο ζήτημα της Συγκλήτου, αλλά και οι άνθρωποι, οι οποίοι θεώρησαν ότι δεν είναι μόνο οι γερουσιαστές, αλλά η κατάσταση ήταν προσβεβλημένος, και μια τρομερή κατήφεια πήγαν μακριά ταυτόχρονα, όλους εκείνους που δεν ήταν υποχρεωμένοι να παραμείνουν, ότι Καίσαρα πάρα πολύ, όταν ήταν ενήμερη για το λάθος του, αμέσως στράφηκαν για να πάει στο σπίτι, καθώς και την κατάρτιση πλάτη τήβεννος του από το λαιμό του, φώναξε δυνατά σε τόνους στους φίλους του ότι ήταν έτοιμος να προσφέρει το λαιμό του σε όποιον ήθελε να τον σκοτώσει. Αλλά στη συνέχεια έκανε την ασθένειά του μια δικαιολογία για τη συμπεριφορά του, λέγοντας ότι οι αισθήσεις όσων είναι ως εκ τούτου πλήττονται συνήθως δεν παραμένουν σταθερές, όταν η διεύθυνση μιας μόνιμης πλήθος, αλλά γρήγορα ανακινείται και περιστρεφόμενων περίπου, φέρνοντας σε ίλιγγος και αναισθησία. Ωστόσο, αυτό που είπε δεν ήταν αλήθεια? Αντιθέτως, ήταν πολύ επιθυμώντας να αυξάνεται για να λαμβάνετε τις γερουσία? Αλλά ένας από τους φίλους του, όπως λένε, ή μάλλον ένας από τους κόλακες του, Κορνήλιος Balbus, τον συγκρατημένη, λέγοντας: " Να θυμάστε ότι εσύ τέχνη Καίσαρα, και να επιτρέψουν σεαυτον να φλερτάρει ως ανώτερο. "

7 Date: ______________ Signature: ___________________
Office of the Medical Examiner XXII Romulus Road Rome, Roman Republic REPORT OF INVESTIGATION BY THE MEDICAL EXAMINER NAME: Gaius Julius Caesar SEX: male AGE: 55 CAUSE OF DEATH: (mark one only) x violent suicide sudden suspicious, unusual or unnatural Investigating Agency: FBI (unsolved crimes division) Figure 1 shows a mapping of the 23 puncture wounds found on the body of the victim in what I believe is the order of infliction. The random placement of the wounds indicates many attackers crowded around the victim. Of the 23 wounds only wound two would have been fatal as it punctured the victim’s heart. This indicates the attackers were likely not experienced. Multiple wounds to the back indicate multiple attackers surrounding the victim for a simultaneous attack. It may also indicate that some wounds were inflicted while the victim lay on the ground. The victim would have died quickly but not instantly. It is very possible he could have gotten off a few last words before death. Figure 1 PROBABLE CAUSE OF DEATH MANNER OF DEATH Blood loss from a direct puncture wound to the heart. natural suicide x homicide accident unknown I hereby declare that after receiving notice of the death described above I took possession of the body and made inquiries regarding the cause of death in accordance with Section Date: ______________ Signature: ___________________

8 Transcript of secret recording of Senator Cassius
3 January, 44 B.C. [Cassius first explains his argument is about honor. Some in Rome have claimed Caesar to be a god and Cassius finds this insulting as he feels he is just as good a man as Caesar.] Well, honor is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men think of this life; but, for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be in awe of such a thing as I myself. I was born free as Caesar; so were you: we both have fed as well, and we can both endure the winter's cold as well as he. [Cassius will now describe an event which he feels proves Caesar’s humanity by showing he was once saved by Cassius.] For once, upon a raw and gusty day, the troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, Caesar said to me 'darest thou, Cassius, now leap in with me into this angry flood, and swim to yonder point?' Upon the word, accoutered as I was, I plunged in and bade him follow; so indeed he did. The torrent roared, and we did buffet it with lusty sinews, throwing it aside and stemming it with hearts of controversy; but ere we could arrive the point proposed, Caesar cried 'Help me, Cassius, or I sink!' I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor, did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber did I the tired Caesar. [Cassius continues his frustration, clearly angry about Caesar’s status as a living god and his own, powerless, status. He gives another example of Caesar’s weakness here.] And this man is now become a god, and Cassius is a wretched creature and must bend his body, if Caesar carelessly but nod on him. He had a fever when he was in Spain, and when the fit was on him, I did mark how he did shake: 'tis true, this god did shake; his coward lips did from their color fly, and that same eye whose bend doth awe the world did lose his luster. I did hear him groan: ay, and that tongue of his that bade the Romans mark him and write his speeches in their books, alas, it cried 'Give me some drink, Titinius,' as a sick girl. [After a number of insults Cassius makes his final statement that he is shocked Caesar has been given this power.] Ye gods, it doth amaze me a man of such a feeble temper should so get the start of the majestic world and bear the palm alone. Goes along with mp3: Cassius 1.5

9 Warning from Calpurnia, Caesar’s Wife
Caesar was warned repeatedly about a possible attack. He in fact delayed his visit to the Senate many times because of it. Here are two of the warnings. Warning from Calpurnia, Caesar’s Wife “My Lord! I have had a terrible nightmare! I saw myself holding your bloody body crying. Please, I beg of you, stay home. Tell them you are sick. Do not go to the Senate today!” Warning from Spurina, Fortune-Teller “The oracles tell of blood on this day, the Ides of March. Caesar, you must be careful.” He ignored them and went. That very day he was given a note giving specific details about the attack. To add: The evening before the Senate meeting Caesar is reported to have been at dinner with Marcus Ledi-dus. At the meal Marcus asked “What kind of death in best?” to which Caesar immediately cried out “A sudden one!” Note found in Caesar’s Hand after the Assassination

10 Translation 15 March Great Caesar,
My lord, you must not attend the meeting at the senate today. I have heard of a great conspiracy among the senators to take your very life. While I do not know the names of those involved I know there are many. If you go to the senate today as planned you will surely be murdered. There are men in the senate who are jealous of your power my lord and will do anything to stop you from taking your rightful place as ruler. Please, do not go to the senate today. Currently 5 x7

11 Marcelus Cicero Court of Rome
AO94 – Statement of Defense Court of Rome Republic of Rome vs. Senator Cassius Case Number: 12 Witness statement given by Tyrannus, one of Caesar’s bodyguards “Three days before the assassination Caesar fired me along with all of his other bodyguards. He told us he would be traveling on his own. We insisted that he keep us around to protect him. I don’t know what he was thinking. Maybe he was beginning to believe that he truly was a god and nobody could hurt him anyway or maybe he was just simply tired of being followed all the time. This was especially strange based on the threats that we heard from Cassius. One of the other guards told me he heard Caesar say that he didn’t want to live any more because of his sickness. I don’t know if this is true or not but either way it seems very odd. For days he had delayed his visit to the Senate due to all the warnings. And yet, only three days before he does go he gives up his protection?” SWORN TO before me this 18th day of March, 44 B.C. Marcelus Cicero Roman District Judge

12 The following laws were accepted regarding the Roman Army:
6th Senate 4th Session IN THE SENATE Some random bc date The following laws were accepted regarding the Roman Army: “Be it enacted that the following shall apply to all generals in the Roman army into the future. I. All men shall serve involuntary terms of no more than twenty years. II. No general may lead his army beyond the river Rubicon and into the lands of Italy. i. Any general who leads his troops beyond the river shall be considered a traitor against the Republic. ii. Soldiers who are led across the Rubicon are not bound to the commands of their general, instead they are bound to the commands of Roman law. III. Any soldier guilty of desertion will have his entire unit subject to decimation in addition to the regular penalty of death.” Not currently part of the lab.

13 Indictment Now that you have seen all the evidence write an indictment. Did the senators do the right thing by assassinating Caesar? Option: provide indictment against the senate and, as judge, decide whether it is legit.

Investigator: Date filed: INDICTMENT THE GRAND JURY CHARGES THAT: DEFENDANT __________________________________ (Write the name of who you believe committed the crime.) IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRIME OF _______________________ ________________________________________________________. WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING EVIDENCE: (What stations prove your argument? What do they show? Exhibit _____ shows

15 Vocabulary Tyrant – a ruler who has total power and acts brutally Republic – A government ruled by a group of officials like the United States. Dictator – a ruler appointed by the senate with total power in emergency

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