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1 The translations of the Communist Manifesto, 1919-1951: some preliminary findings and remarks Christina Delistathi Middlesex University

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "1 The translations of the Communist Manifesto, 1919-1951: some preliminary findings and remarks Christina Delistathi Middlesex University"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 1 The translations of the Communist Manifesto, : some preliminary findings and remarks Christina Delistathi Middlesex University

2 2 Aims of the presentation To show how certain translational choices made by the translator of the Communist Manifesto can be linked to politico-ideological struggles in Greece. To show how translational choices assisted the KKE’s wider political project: to appropriate the Marxist theory.

3 3 The corpus Lefevere (1992:14) “Translations are not made in a vacuum. Translators function in a given culture at a given time.” The translation/publication/dissemination: institutionally organised activities Diachronic discussion during a period of intense linguistic and socio-political change All translations were in Dimotiki All were booklets except the 1951

4 4 Translational choices Four translational choices: Four translational choices: : Addition of verbs in the first person plural in the TT 1919: Addition of verbs in the first person plural in the TT1919: Addition of verbs in the first person plural in the TT 2.Thematic paragraph numbering (educational role) Thematic paragraph numbering (educational role)Thematic paragraph numbering (educational role) : The translation of the title 1933: The translation of the title1933: The translation of the title 4.The presence of German words in the translation (linked to a political project) The presence of German words in the translation (linked to a political project)The presence of German words in the translation (linked to a political project)

5 5 The 1919 translation The SEKE a new party without internal ideological coherence The Communist Manifesto: symbolic significance Marxist principles and not many Marxist texts translated: educational significance

6 6 The educational role of the Communist Manifesto: the 1919 translation To educate the audience in Marxist ideas Part of the intended audience was largely illiterate Sipitanou (Σηπιτάνου,1998:42): throughout this period half the population was illiterate. How could the workers and peasants access the Communist Manifesto’s ideas?

7 7 Institutionally organised efforts for education in Marxism despite illiteracy: Party meetings - communal reading (Chartier, 1992) of the Communist Manifesto Public reading: established social practice Translational choice: potential audience participation in the text Addition of verbs in the first person, plural (20 instances in TT/8 in ST – 13 additions)

8 8 1919: Βλέπουμε λοιπόν πως οι εργάτες, σ’ αυτό το βαθμό της εξελίξεως, δεν αγωνίζονται εναντίον των αληθινών τους εχθρών, αλλά πολεμούν τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους, … (p. 37) 1919: Βλέπουμε λοιπόν πως οι εργάτες, σ’ αυτό το βαθμό της εξελίξεως, δεν αγωνίζονται εναντίον των αληθινών τους εχθρών, αλλά πολεμούν τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους, … (p. 37) 1933: Στη βαθμίδα λοιπόν τούτη οι προλετάριοι δεν πολεμάνε τους εχθρούς τους, μα τους εχθρούς των εχθρώνε τους, … (p. 34) 1933: Στη βαθμίδα λοιπόν τούτη οι προλετάριοι δεν πολεμάνε τους εχθρούς τους, μα τους εχθρούς των εχθρώνε τους, … (p. 34) 1948: Σαυτή τη φάση οι προλετάριοι δεν πολεμάν ακόμα τους δικούς τους εχθρούς, αλλά τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους, … (p. 31) 1948: Σαυτή τη φάση οι προλετάριοι δεν πολεμάν ακόμα τους δικούς τους εχθρούς, αλλά τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους, … (p. 31) 1951: Σ’ αυτό το στάδιο οι προλετάριοι δεν καταπολεμούν ακόμα τους δικούς τους εχθρούς, αλλά τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους,... (p. 38) 1951: Σ’ αυτό το στάδιο οι προλετάριοι δεν καταπολεμούν ακόμα τους δικούς τους εχθρούς, αλλά τους εχθρούς των εχθρών τους,... (p. 38) ST gloss: At this stage, therefore, the proletarians fight not only their enemies but the enemies of their enemies … ST gloss: At this stage, therefore, the proletarians fight not only their enemies but the enemies of their enemies …

9 9 2. Thematic paragraph numbering Signalled new theme or concept Re-focused hearer/reader’s attention Facilitated memorising and referencing Re-segmented and reorganised the text

10 10 The 1933 translation KKE: consolidated its ideological identity. First Trotskyist organisations in Greece: Archives of Marxism and Pouliopoulos’s group The symbolic significance of the Communist Manifesto

11 11 3. The translation of the title 1919: The Communist Manifesto (front cover and beginning of text) 1933: The Communist Manifesto (front cover) and Manifesto of the Communist Party (beginning of text) 1948: Manifesto of the Communist Party (front cover and beginning of text) 1951: Manifesto of the Communist Party (front cover and beginning of text)

12 12 The translation of the title Yiannis Kordatos (1927:15-16): “Firstly, this title is now well-known... Secondly, nowadays, that there are Communist Parties all over the world, there can be a confusion. Moreover, at that time, the title Manifesto of the Communist Party meant the Manifesto of a worldwide Communist League. It did not, thus, have the meaning that it was coming from a local organisation.”

13 13 The CC’s 1927 “Decision on the activity of the propaganda section”: T h e m o n o p o l y o f t h e o r y. [emphasis in the original]. Our Party ought to aim at the monopoly of representation of the Marxist- Leninist theory. This is also one of the numerous criteria of the theoretical and political maturity of the Party. It must also seek through the operation of a wide propaganda the spread of the Marxist-Leninist literature. Securing the monopoly of the Marxist and Leninist theory strengthens the Party against hostile organisations reactionary at heart, but which are hidden under the mask of communism and the communist teaching. (KKE Επίσημα Κείμενα, 1965, 2: )

14 14 4. German words in the translated text 1919: Ο νεώτερος εργάτης απεναντίας, αντί να υψώνεται από την πρόοδο της βιομηχανίας, κατεβαίνει ολοένα πειό κάτω από το ύψος της τάξεώς του. Ο εργάτης μεταβάλλεται σε φτωχό, και η φτώχεια μεγαλώνει πειό γλήγορα ακόμα από τον πληθυσμό και τον πλούτο. 1933: Αντίθετα ο σύγχρονος εργάτης, αντίς ν’ ανεβεί με την πρόοδο της βιομηχανίας όλο και ξεπέφτει χαμηλότερα απ’ το επίπεδο των όρων της δικής του τάξης. Ο εργάτης καταντά θεόφτωχος (Pauper), και η αδιάκοπη αύξηση της μαζικής φτώχειας (Pauperismus) αναπτύσσεται γληγορότερα παρά ο πληθυσμός και τα πλούτη.

15 translation: Thematic paragraph numbering and the addition of verbs in the first person plural can be linked to the reading context: to assist an audience with limited literacy translation: quest for accuracy with the presence of German words in the TT and the use of two titles can be interpreted by looking at the political struggles within the Left at the time for the monopoly over Marxism. Concluding remarks

16 16 Thank you!


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