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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) The Perfect System (from Chapters 31-33)

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) The Perfect System (from Chapters 31-33)"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) The Perfect System (from Chapters 31-33)

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 parse/parsing 1 st, 2 nd or 3 RD PERSON SINGULAR or PLURAL PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE, AORIST, PERFECT or PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE, INFINITIVE, IMPERATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, OPTATIVE, PARTICIPLE ACTIVE, MIDDLE, PASSIVE

4 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system The perfect tense refers to a completed action which results in the current situation. Recall that the aorist tense refers to a single past action. Recall that the imperfect tense refers to ongoing or repeated past action.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system Imperfect (incomplete past) –I was climbing the tree. Aorist (single action) –I climbed the tree. Perfect (completed action) –I have climbed the tree.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system The present, imperfect, and aorist tenses together make up about 90% of the verb forms in most ancient Greek texts. The present, future, imperfect, aorist and perfect tenses together make up over 99% of the verb forms in most ancient Greek texts.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

8 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect adds a reduplication to the beginning of the stem. –For a stem beginning with a consonant, this reduplication means the consonant doubles, separated by an -ε- λυ-  λελυ- γραφ-  γεγραφ-

9 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect adds a reduplication to the beginning of the stem. Most verbs also add the tense marker -κ- to the end of the stem. λυ-  λελυκ-

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular -α (I) -ας (you) -ε(ν) (s/he, it) plural -αμεν (we) -ατε (you, y’all) -ασι(ν) (they) the endings for the perfect (like the weak [1 st ] aorist endings, except in the 3 rd plural)

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular λέλυκα λέλυκας λέλυκε plural λελύκαμεν λελύκατε λελύκασι perfect tense stem = λελυκ Note the addition of both the reduplication and the κ to the stem.

12 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect tense refers to a completed action which results in the current situation. The pluperfect tense refers to a completed action which resulted in a specific situation in the past.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) Imperfect (incomplete past) –I was climbing the tree. Aorist (single action) –I climbed the tree. Perfect (completed action) –I have climbed the tree. Pluperfect (completed action in the past) –I had climbed the tree.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The pluperfect is the secondary version of the perfect indicative, so it adds an augment (like the imperfect and aorist). Like the perfect tense, it adds both a reduplication to the beginning of the stem and the tense marker -κ- to the end of the stem. λυ-  ἐλελυκ-

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular ἐλελύκην ἐλελύκης ἐλελύκει(ν) plural ἐλελύκεμεν ἐλελύκετε ἐλελύκεσαν pluperfect tense stem = ἐλελυκ Note the addition of the augment, reduplication and κ to the stem.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) Watch out for the pluperfect in the readings, but it is a very rare tense and you are not responsible for it in this class.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg present indicative active is the first principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg future indicative active is the second principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg aorist indicative active is the third principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg perfect indicative active is the fourth principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

22 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive use the same stem as the active, except without the -κ- marker. For reference, this stem is shown in the 5 th principal part.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative use the standard endings: –primary endings -μαι -σαι -ται -μεθα -σθε -νται for the present, future, and perfect tenses. –secondary endings -μην -σο -το -μεθα -σθε -ντο for the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect tenses.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ACTIVE singular λέλυκα λέλυκας λέλυκε plural λελύκαμεν λελύκατε λελύκασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular λέλυμαι λέλυσαι λέλυται plural λελύμεθα λέλυσθε λέλυνται perfect tense stem = λελυ (+ κ in active)

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ACTIVE singular ἐλελύκην ἐλελύκης ἐλελύκει plural ἐλελύκεμεν ἐλελύκετε ἐλελύκεσαν MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular ἐλελύμην ἐλέλυσο ἐλέλυτο plural ἐλελύμεθα ἐλέλυσθε ἐλέλυντο pluperfect tense stem = ἐλελυ (+ κ in active)

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Genitive of agent When a sentence is passive, the agent of the action normally goes in the genitive following ὑπό : –ὁ Περικλῆς διώκει τοὺς Πέρσας. “Pericles pursues the Persians.” (active) –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ὑπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους. “The Persians are pursued by Pericles.” (passive)

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Genitive of agent An instrument is expressed by the dative, whether the verb is active or passive: –ὁ Περικλῆς διώκει ἁμάξῃ τοὺς Πέρσας. “Pericles pursues the Persians in a chariot.” –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ἁμάξῃ ὑπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους. “The Persians are pursued by Pericles in a chariot.” –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ἁμάξαις. “The Persians are pursued by chariots.”

29 Shelmerdine Chapter The dative of personal agent When the verb is perfect and passive, however, the personal agent is usually in the dative: –ὁ Περικλῆς λέλυκε τοὺς ἵππους. “Pericles has set the horses free.” –οἱ ἵπποι λέλυνται τῷ Περικλεῖ. “The horses have been set free by Pericles.”

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

31 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) perfect infinitives –endings: – έναι (active) – σθαι (middle) –  λελυκέναι (active) λελύσθαι (middle) The accent for these infinitives is fixed on the penult.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) The perfect infinitive is used only to emphasize the completeness of some action: –οὐκ ἐθέλω λύειν τὴν πόλιν· ἀλλ’ ἐθέλω καταλελύσθαι. –I don’t want to set the city free: I want it completely destroyed!”

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

34 Shelmerdine Chapter The 2 nd (strong) perfect active The term 2 nd (strong) perfect refers to verb which does not add the tense marker -κ- to form its perfect stem. This happens almost always because adding -κ to the verb stem would make it difficult or unpleasant to pronounce.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg perfect indicative active is the fourth principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

37 Shelmerdine Chapter Reduplication The reduplication necessary to form the perfect stem might also be modified for pronunciation purposes. –For a stem beginning with an aspirated consonant, reduplication means only the stop consonant doubles, not the aspiration: θυ-  τεθυ-

38 Shelmerdine Chapter Reduplication The reduplication necessary to form the perfect stem might also be modified for pronunciation purposes. –For a stem beginning with a sigma, reduplication usually means adding the - ἐ- but not doubling the σ : στρατεύ-  σεστρατευκ-  ἐστρατευκ- ἵστημι (στη-)  ἑστηκ-

39 Shelmerdine Chapter Reduplication The reduplication necessary to form the perfect stem might also be modified for pronunciation purposes. –For a stem beginning with a vowel, reduplication means effectively lengthening the vowel: ἀ-, ἐ-  ἠ- ὀ-  ὠ- ἰ-  ἰ- ὐ-  ὐ-

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

41 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Also for purposes of pronunciation, if the stem of the verb ends in a consonant, some assimilation takes place with the consonant of the ending. Recall the basic relationship of the consonants (Shelmerdine page 2).

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 LabialDentalPalatal unvoiced stop πτκ voiced βδγ aspirated φθχ + σψσξ nasal μνγκ, γγ, γχ, γξ

43 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Middle verb endings start with one of five consonant sounds: –μ (μαι, μην, μεθα, μένος –η –ον) –σ (σαι, σο) –τ (ται, το) –σθ (σθε, σθαι) –ντ (νται, ντο)

44 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Labials and palatals assimilate to the voice and aspiration of the adjacent consonant. Dentals become σ throughout.

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 Labial ( π, β, φ ) Dental ( τ, δ, θ ) Palatal ( κ, γ, χ ) + τπτπτστστκτκτ + μμσμσμγμγμ + σθφθφθσθσθχθχθ + σψσξ + ντ---

46 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs The third person plural endings ( νται, ντο ) yield clusters too complicated to be pronounced smoothly (e.g., μντ, σντ, γντ ), especially for a construction used only rarely.

47 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs Consequently, Greek substitutes a periphrastic (using multiple words to substitute for a single one) construction: the perfect passive participle + 3 rd person plural form of εἰμί. –For γράφω, for example, instead of *γέγραμνται, we find γεγραμμένοι εἰσι, literally “having been written, they are”  “they have been written.”

48 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

49 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect active participle To form the perfect active participle, to the perfect active stem, add -ώς –υῖα –ός (nominative singular endings) -ν- disappears in the masculine/neuter, -υι- replaces -ουσ- in the feminine, but otherwise identical to the present active.  λελυκώς λελυκυῖα λελυκός κτλ. (p. 244)

50 Shelmerdine Chapter 32 1.The 2 nd (strong) perfect active 2.Reduplication 3.The perfect middle/passive of consonant stem verbs 4.The perfect active participle 5.The perfect middle/passive participle 6.Supplementary participles not in indirect statement

51 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect middle/passive participle All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the perfect middle participle, to the perfect middle stem, add –μένος –μένη –μένον  λελυμένος λελυμένη λελυμένον

52 Shelmerdine Chapter 33 1.The perfect subjunctive and optative 2.Numbers 3.Declension of numbers 4.The negative pronouns/adjectives οὐδείς and μηδείς 5.Clauses of fearing 6.Indirect questions

53 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect subjunctive and optative The subjunctive exists in only two tenses, the present and aorist. Shelmerdine shows forms for the perfect subjunctive, but these are rare and of restricted use, so you may safely ignore them.

54 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect subjunctive and optative Greek uses a periphrastic (using multiple words to substitute for a single one) construction: the perfect participle + the present subjunctive of εἰμί. –γεγραφότες ὦσι, literally “having written, they are”  “they have been written.” –γεγραμμένοι ὦσι, literally “having been written, they are”  “they have been written.”

55 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect subjunctive and optative The optative exists in only two tenses, the present and aorist. Shelmerdine shows forms for the perfect optative, but these are rare and of restricted use, so you may safely ignore them.

56 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect subjunctive and optative Greek uses a periphrastic (using multiple words to substitute for a single one) construction: the perfect participle + the present optative of εἰμί. –γεγραφότες εἶεν, literally “having written, they are”  “they have been written.” –γεγραμμένοι εἶεν, literally “having been written, they are”  “they have been written.”

57 The Perfect System (Chapters 31-33) for next class (Thursday, April 14, 2011): Quiz: –Endings of the perfect active indicative + infinitive Verb overview and review

58 Quiz 38 singular -α (I) -ας (you) -ε(ν) (s/he, it) plural -αμεν (we) -ατε (you, y’all) -ασι(ν) (they) the endings for the perfect infinitive – έναι

59 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 for next class (Monday, April 25, 2011): Quiz: Vocabulary Chapter 31 –omit: οὐκέτι Remainder of Chapters 31-33


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