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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 15: Middle.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 15: Middle."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 15: Middle Voice (secondary tenses)

2 Elementary Greek This class (someday, Month ##, 2013) AGE Unit 15: The Middle Voice (Secondary Tenses) Unit 9 introduced the middle voice. Unit 11 introduced the imperfect tense (a secondary tense). Unit 13 added another secondary tense, the aorist. This unit presents the indicative and infinitive endings of the middle voice for secondary tenses.

3 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb The Master List of Endings – Posted in Moodle is a “Master List of Greek Verb Endings” where you can see the overall scheme of verb endings. Here you can see the three sets each of primary endings and secondary endings. – On the second sheet (= back side) are the other moods, of which you have already learned the infinitive.

4 Elementary Greek A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd – Number: singular, plural – Tense: present, future, imperfect, aorist – Mood: indicative, infinitive – Voice: active, middle

5 Elementary Greek Conjugating a Greek verb Recall that Greek has two conjugations: – - μι verbs – - ω verbs In the active voice, these conjugations use somewhat different endings to designate person and number (and the infinitive mood). In the middle voice, both conjugations use exactly the same endings to designate person and number (and the infinitive mood).

6 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb The endings of the Middle Voice are as follows: - μην = I (1 st sg) - μεθα = we (1 st pl) - σο = you (2 nd sg) - σθε = y’all (2 nd pl) - το = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - ντο = they (3 rd pl) – σθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. Notice that the infinitive ending is the same for both primary and secondary tenses.

7 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb Remember that - ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the endings of the Middle Voice appear as follows: - ομην = I (1 st sg) - ομεθα = we (1 st pl) *- εσο  - ου (2 nd sg) - εσθε = y’all (2 nd pl) - ετο = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - οντο = they (3 rd pl) – εσθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. Notice that the infinitive ending is the same for both primary and secondary tenses. *The second person singular regularly appears in contracted form.

8 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb Remember that - ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the endings of the Middle Voice appear as follows: - ομην = I (1 st sg) - ομεθα = we (1 st pl) *- εσο  - ου (2 nd sg) - εσθε = y’all (2 nd pl) - ετο = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - οντο = they (3 rd pl) – εσθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. *The second person singular regularly appears in contracted form.

9 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show” λυ = “loosen, destroy” λαβ = “take”

10 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb Recall that some verbs add a marker (often a ν ) to the stem that says the verb is in the present tense. A verb always uses the same marker in the middle voice that is uses in the active: – δεικ νυ = “show” (in the present) – λυ = “loosen” (no marker used in the present) – λαμβαν = “take” (in the present)

11 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb In secondary tenses, however, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem. This augment used to be a separate word ( ἐ ), which meant that the verb was in the past, and gradually it became a prefix to the verb stem: – ἐδεικ νυ = “show” (in the imperfect) – ἐλυ = “loosen” (in the imperfect) – ἐλαμβαν = “take” (in the imperfect)

12 Elementary Greek ἐδεικνύμην ἐδείκνυσο ἐδείκνυτο ἐδεικνύμεθα ἐδείκνυσθε ἐδείκνυντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of δείκνυμι (GPH p. 157)

13 Elementary Greek ἔλυόμην (ἐ-λύεσο  ) ἐλύου ἐλύετο ἐλυόμεθα ἐλύεσθε ἐλύοντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of λύω (GPH p. 70)

14 Elementary Greek ἐλαμβανόμην (ἐ-λαμβάνεσο  ) ἐλαμβάνου ἐλαμβάνετο ἐλαμβανόμεθα ἐλαμβάνεσθε ἐλαμβάνοντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of λαμβάνω

15 Elementary Greek From Unit 2: - μι Verbs δίδωμι give τίθημι put, make ἵστημι stand ἵημι throw

16 Elementary Greek ἐδιδόμην ἐδίδοσο ἐδίδοτο ἐδιδόμεθα ἐδίδοσθε ἐδίδοντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of δίδωμι (GPH p. 124)

17 Elementary Greek ἐτιθέμην ἐτίθεσο ἐτίθετο ἐτιθέμεθα ἐτίθεσθε ἐτίθεντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of τίθημι (GPH p. 146)

18 Elementary Greek ἱστάμην ἵστασο ἵστατο This verb has a long vowel augment, but it does not affect the way it the vowel is written (since long and short ι are written the same). ἱστάμεθα ἵστασθε ἵσταντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of ἵστημι (GPH p. 135)

19 Elementary Greek ἱέμην ἵεσο ἵετο This verb has a long vowel augment, but it does not affect the way it the vowel is written (since long and short ι are written the same). ἱέμεθα ἵεσθε ἵεντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of ἵημι

20 Elementary Greek From Unit 7: Contract Verbs The rules of vowel contraction operate in verbs when the stem ends in one of the vowels α, ε or ο. In these cases, this final vowel of the stem contracts with the thematic vowel of “- ω verbs.” The following slides give examples of contract verbs in the imperfect indicative middle. These follow the regular rules of vowel contraction.

21 Elementary Greek (ἐ-αἱρέομην  ) ᾑρούμην (ἐ-αἱρέεσο  ) ᾑροῦ (ἐ-αἱρέετο  ) ᾑρεῖτο This verb has a long vowel augment. (ἐ-αἱρεόμεθα  ) ᾑρούμεθα (ἐ-αἱρέεσθε  ) ᾑρεῖσθε (ἐ-αἱρέοντο  ) ᾕροῦντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of αἱρέω

22 Elementary Greek (ἐ-ερωταόμην  ) ἠρωτώμην (ἐ-ερωτάεσο  ) ἠρωτῶ (ἐ-ερωτάτο  ) ἠρωτᾶτο This verb has a long vowel augment. (ἐ-ερωταόμεθα  ) ἠρωτώμεθα (ἐ-ερωτάεσθε  ) ἠρωτᾶσθε (ἐ-ερωτάοντο  ) ἠρωτῶντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of ἐρωτάω

23 Elementary Greek (ἐδηλοόμην  ) ἐδηλούμην (ἐδηλόεσο  ) ἐδηλοῦ (ἐδηλόετο  ) ἐδηλοῦτο (ἐδηλοόμεθα  ) ἐδηλούμεθα (ἐδηλόεσθε  ) ἐδηλοῦσθε (ἐδηλόοντο  ) ἐδηλοῦντο Building a Greek Verb The Imperfect Indicative Middle of δηλόω GPH p. 119)

24 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – In form, both the aorist and imperfect are secondary tenses, so an augment ( ἐ -) precedes the stem in the indicative mood, and they use secondary endings. – The stem, however, is almost always different for the two tenses. Therefore, it is essential to identify the stem correctly in order to know the tense of the verb and what action the verb conveys.

25 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb – The verb stems of the aorist and imperfect tenses are almost always different. – Verbs in the imperfect tense always have exactly the same stem as they do in the present tense. – The stem of a verb in the aorist tense will be different in one of two ways: The verb adds the aorist marker - σα - to the stem (known as the “1 st aorist” or “weak aorist”) or The verb uses just the stem of the verb itself with no specific marker (known as the “2 nd aorist” or “strong aorist”).

26 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb The “1 st aorist” or “weak aorist” adds the aorist marker - σα - to the stem of the verb: Recall the secondary endings in the middle voice: - μην = I (1 st sg) - μεθα = we (1 st pl) - σο = you (2 nd sg) - σθε = y’all (2 nd pl) - το = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - ντο = they (3 rd pl) The aorist marker - σα - precedes the above endings.

27 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show” λυ = “loosen, destroy”

28 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb In secondary tenses, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem. This augment used to be a separate word ( ἐ ), which meant that the verb was in the past, and gradually it became a prefix to the verb stem: – ἐλυ = “loosen” (secondary indicative) – ἐδεικ = “show” (secondary indicative)

29 Elementary Greek ἔλυσάμην (ἐλύσασο  ) ἐλύσω ἔλυσατο ἐλυσάμεθα ἐλύσασθε ἐλύσαντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of λύω (GPH p. 78)

30 Elementary Greek ἔδειξάμην (ἐδείκ-σασο  ) ἔδείξω ἐδείξατο ἐδειξάμεθα ἐδείξασθε ἐδείξαντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of δείκνυμι ( κ + σ = ξ )

31 Elementary Greek Conjugating a Greek verb In Unit 7, you learned that Greek has two conjugations: – - μι verbs – - ω verbs Both types of verbs form the 1 st (weak) aorist in the same way (augment + stem + - σα -, etc.). Notice that - ω verbs drop their thematic vowel in this process. When verbs form the 2 nd (strong) aorist, - ω verbs retain their thematic vowel - μι verbs add endings directly to their stem.

32 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb The “2 nd aorist” or “strong aorist” uses just the stem of the verb itself with no specific marker. Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells what action the verb describes: λαβ = “take” In secondary tenses, however, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem. ἐλαβ = “take” (secondary indicative)

33 Elementary Greek ἐλαβόμην (ἐλάβεσο  ) ἐλάβου ἐλάβετο ἐλαβόμεθα ἐλάβεσθε ἐλάβοντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of λαμβάνω

34 Elementary Greek Unit 2 - μι verbs: δω -  δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα give ἥ -  ἵημι, ἥσω, ἧκα throw θη -  τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα put, make

35 Elementary Greek ἐδόμην (ἔδοσο  ) ἔδου ἔδοτο ἔδόμεθα ἔδοσθε ἔδοντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of δίδωμι (GPH p. 129)

36 Elementary Greek ἐθέμην (ἔθεσο  ) ἔθου ἔθετο ἐθέμεθα ἔθεσθε ἔθεντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of τίθημι (GPH p. 151)

37 Elementary Greek εἵμην εἷσο εἷτο εἵμεθα εἷσθε εἷντο Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Middle of ἵημι

38 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: Recall that, like the present tense, the aorist occurs in the infinitive mood. The augment to secondary tenses always means that the action actually took place in the past. Consequently, only the indicative mood uses the augment, since it is the only mood that specifies actual historical action. Therefore the aorist infinitive never has the augment. – σθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. – The infinitive ending is the same for both primary and secondary tenses.

39 Elementary Greek A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd – Number: singular, plural – Tense: present, future, imperfect, aorist – Mood: indicative, infinitive – Voice: active, middle

40 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – λύσασθαι – δείξασθαι ( κ + σ = ξ ) – λαβέσθαι The accent is fixed and unchanging on this form. – δόσθαι – θέσθαι – ἕσθαι Recall that, like the infinitive mood does not exist in the imperfect tense.

41 Elementary Greek Classical Vocabulary (deponent) αἰσθάνομαι, αἰσθήσομαι, ᾐσθόμην perceive ἀφικνέομαι, ἀφίξομαι, ἀφικόμην come to, arrive at γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην happen, become, be born δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην welcome ἐργάζομαι, ἐργάσομαι, ἠργασάμην work ἐρωτάω, ἐρήσομαι, ἠρόμην ask

42 Elementary Greek Classical Vocabulary (deponent) ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην lead, consider κτάομαι, κτήσομαι, ἐκτησάμην get, acquire μάχομαι, μαχοῦμαι, ἡμαχεσάμην fight πυνθάνομαι, πεύσομαι, ἐπυθόμην learn, hear, inquire σκέπτομαι / σκοπέω, σκέψομαι ἐσκεψάμην look at, examine χράομαι, χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην use

43 Elementary Greek New Testament Vocabulary (deponent) ἀποκρίνομαι, - κρινοῦμαι, - εκρινάμην answer, reply ἀρνέομαι, ἀρνήσομαι, ἀρνησάμην deny γίνομαι γενήσομαι ἐγενόμην happen, become, be born – παραγίνομαι come to, appear δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην welcome καυχάομαι, καυχήσομαι, ἐκαυχησάμην boast προσεύχομαι, προσεύξομαι, προσηυξάμην pray

44 Elementary Greek Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013) – Classical reading – Biblical reading


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