2 Research areas- Historical studies (who translated what when and how, and how did gender play into this?)- Theoretical considerations (how do different gender affiliations, definitions, constructions play themselves out in translation and translation research?)- Issues of identity (how does gendered identity or a lack of it affect translation, translation research?)- Post-colonial questions (does our largely Anglo-American "gender" apply in other cultures and their texts? Does it translate into other languages? And what does it mean if it doesn’t?)- More general questions of cultural transfer
3 Translation and femininity “Whether affirmed or denounced, the femininity of translation is a persistent historical trope. ‘Woman’ and ‘translator’ have been relegated to the same position of discursive inferiority. The hierarchical authority of the original over the reproduction is linked with imagery of masculine and feminine; the original is considered the strong generative male, the translation the weaker and derivative female” (Sherry Simon, Gender in Translation)
4 Bible translationsVarious new gender-sensitive translations into a number of languages and reactions (Liturgiam Authenticam, 2001)Virginity of Mother of God in Old Testament
5 Liturgiam Authenticam “it is the task of catechists or of the homilist to transmit that right interpretation of the texts that excludes any prejudice or unjust discrimination on the basis of persons, gender, social condition, race or other criteria, which has no foundation at all in the texts of the Sacred Liturgy. Although considerations such as these may sometimes help one in choosing among various translations of a certain expression, they are not to be considered reasons for altering either a biblical text or a liturgical text that has been duly promulgated.” “the greatest prudence and attention is required in the preparation of liturgical books marked by sound doctrine, which are exact in wording, free from all ideological influence”
6 GenesisAnd the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and he slept:and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. (King James Translation)YHWH Elohim made a swoon fall upon the groundling It slept He took one of its sides and closed up the flesh in its place YHWH built the side He had taken from the groundling into woman He brought her to the groundlingThe groundling said This one this time Is bone from my bonesFlesh from my flesh This one shall be called wo-man For from man She has been taken this one. (Mary Phil Korsak 1992)
7 Virginity of MaryIsaiah 7:14 “Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” “διὰ τοῦτο δώσει Κύριος αὐτὸς ὑμῖν σημεῖον· ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει, καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ᾿Εμμανουήλ” Mis-translation: the original Hebrew word almah (maiden, young girl or young woman) had been mistakenly translated into the Greek parthenos (virgin), so that the original prophesy did not, in fact, call for a virgin to conceive, but simply for a young woman, a maiden, to conceive.
9 Θεός μου φαίνεται στ΄ αλήθεια εμένα κείνος ο άντρας που κάθεται αντίκρυ σου κι από κοντά τη γλύκα της φωνής σου απολαμβάνει και το γέλιο σου αχ που ξελογιάζει και που λιώνει στο στήθος την καρδιά μου σου τ΄ ορκίζομαι γιατί μόλις που πάω να σε κοιτάξω νιώθω ξάφνου μου κόβεται η μιλιά μου μες στο στόμα η γλώσσα μου στεγνώνει πυρετός κρυφός με σιγοκαίει κι ούτε βλέπω τίποτα ούτε ακούω μα βουίζουν τ΄ αυτιά μου κι ένας κρύος ιδρώτας το κορμί μου περιχάει τρέμω σύγκορμη αχ και πρασινίζω σάν το χόρτο και λέω πως λίγο ακόμη λίγο ακόμη και πάει θα ξεψυχήσω.Οδυσσέας Ελύτης
10 Richmond LattimoreLike the very gods in my sight is he who sits where he can look in your eyes, who listens close to you, to hear the soft voice, its sweetness murmur in love and laughter, all for him. But it breaks my spirit; underneath my breast all the heart is shaken. let me only glance where you are, the voice dies, I can say nothing, but my lips are stricken to silence, under- neath my skin the tenuous flame suffuses; nothing shows in front of my eyes, my ears are muted in thunder. And the sweat breaks running upon me, fever shakes my body, paler I turn than grass is; I can feel that I have been changed, I feel that death has come near me.
11 Anne CarsonHe seems to me equal to the gods that man whoever he is opposite you sits and listens close to your sweet speaking and lovely laughing – oh it puts the heart in my chest on wings for when I look at you, a moment, then no speaking is left in me no: tongue breaks, and thin fire is racing under skin and in eyes no sight and drumming fills ears and cold sweat holds me and shaking grips me all, greener than grass I am and dead – or almost I seem to me.