Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 23.

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 23."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 23

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs Almost all verbs in Greek are “thematic” verbs, because they have a thematic vowel (the ο/ε before the endings). They are also known as –ω verbs, since their first principal part ends in –ω. A small number of Greek verbs are “athematic” because they have no thematic vowel. These are known as –μι verbs, since their first principal part ends in –μι.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs These verbs display slightly different endings and sometimes feature small changes to their stems at unusual times. This system of endings also lies behind the forms of the aorist passive system.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs Although there are very few –μι verbs, some are very common. You first learned the most common –μι verb, εἰμί. In Chapter 14, you learned another –μι verb, φη μί “say.”

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular -μι -ς -σι plural -μεν -τε -ασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular -μαι -σαι -ται plural -μεθα -σθε -νται present tense (with differences from thematic verbs noted) for ω for ει for ουσι

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular -ν -ς - plural -μεν -τε -σαν PASSIVE singular -μην -σο -το plural -μεθα -σθε -ντο imperfect tense (with differences from thematic verbs noted) for ον

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs This section shows the forms of four common –μι verbs. Their principal parts are (with stems highlighted): –δείκνυμι, δείξω, ἔδειξα, δέδειχα, δέδειγμαι, ἐδείχθην show –τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα, -τέθεμαι, ἐτέθην put –ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστασα/ἔστην, ἕστηκα, ἕσταμαι, ἐστάθην stand –δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην give

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs This section shows the present and imperfect indicative, from the first principal part. –δείκνυμι, δείξω, ἔδειξα, δέδειχα, δέδειγμαι, ἐδείχθην show –τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα, -τέθεμαι, ἐτέθην put –ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστασα/ἔστην, ἕστηκα, ἕσταμαι, ἐστάθην stand –δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην give

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular δείκνυμι δείκνυς δείκνυσι plural δείκνυμεν δείκνυτε δεικνύασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular δείκνυμαι δείκνυσαι δείκνυται plural δεικνύμεθα δείκνυσθε δείκνυνται present tense stem = δεικνυ

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular τίθημι τίθης τίθησι plural τίθεμεν τίθετε τιθέασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular τίθεμαι τίθεσαι τίθεται plural τιθέμεθα τίθεσθε τίθενται present tense stem = τιθε η for ε

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἵστημι ἵστης ἵστησι plural ἵσταμεν ἵστατε ἱστᾶσι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular ἵσταμαι ἵστασαι ἵσταται plural ἱστάμεθα ἵστασθε ἵστανται present tense stem = ἵστα η for α

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular δίδωμι δίδως δίδωσι plural δίδομεν δίδοτε διδόασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular δίδομαι δίδοσαι δίδοται plural διδόμεθα δίδοσθε δίδονται present tense stem = διδο ω for ο

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἐδείκνυν ἐδείκνυς ἐδείκνυ plural ἐδείκνυμεν ἐδείκνυτε ἐδείκνυσαν PASSIVE singular ἐδεικνύμην ἐδείκνυσο ἐδείκνυτο plural ἐδεικνύμεθα ἐδείκνυσθε ἐδείκνυντο imperfect tense stem = δεικνυ

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἐτίθην ἐτίθης ἐτίθη plural ἐτίθεμεν ἐτίθετε ἐτίθεσαν PASSIVE singular ἐτιθέμην ἐτίθεσο ἐτίθετο plural ἐτιθέμεθα ἐτίθεσθε ἐτίθεντο imperfect tense stem = τιθε η for ε

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἵστην ἵστης ἵστη plural ἵσταμεν ἵστατε ἵστασαν PASSIVE singular ἱστάμην ἵστασο ἵστατο plural ἱστάμεθα ἵστασθε ἵσταντο imperfect tense stem = ἵστα η for α

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἐδίδουν ἐδίδους ἐδίδου plural ἐδίδομεν ἐδίδοτε ἐδίδοσαν PASSIVE singular ἐδιδόμην ἐδίδοσο ἐδίδοτο plural ἐδιδόμεθα ἐδίδοσθε ἐδίδοντο imperfect tense stem = διδο ου for ο

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs This section shows the aorist indicative, from the third principal part. –τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα, -τέθεμαι, ἐτέθην put –ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστην, ἕστηκα, ἕσταμαι, ἐστάθην stand –δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην give –The aorist of δείκνυμι ( ἔδειξα ) and the 1 st (weak) aorist of ἵστημι ( ἔστασα ) are both regular, so they are not shown separately.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἔθηκα ἔθηκας ἔθηκε plural ἔθεμεν ἔθετε ἔθεσαν MIDDLE singular ἐθέμην ἔθεσο ἔθετο plural ἐθέμεθα ἔθεσθε ἔθεντο aorist tense stem = θε ηκ for ε

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἔστην ἔστης ἔστη plural ἔστημεν ἔστητε ἔστησαν MIDDLE None. This tense is intransitive. Transitive active and middle forms belong to the (regular) 1 st (weak) aorist ἔστησα. aorist tense: stem = στη Notice that these forms resemble the regular aorist passive.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE singular ἔδωκα ἔδωκας ἔδωκε plural ἔδομεν ἔδοτε ἔδοσαν MIDDLE singular ἐδόμην (ἔδοσο  ) ἔδου ἔδοτο plural ἐδόμεθα ἔδοσθε ἔδοντο aorist tense stem = δο ωκ for ο

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs Ιn the infinitive mood, –μι verbs use the ending – ναι in the active (as do the perfect active and aorist passive) and the regular – σθαι in the middle.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present -ναι aorist -ναι MIDDLE present -σθαι aorist -σθαι infinitives

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present δεικνύναι aorist regular 1 st (weak) MIDDLE present δεικνύσθαι aorist regular 1 st (weak) infinitives

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present τιθέναι aorist θεῖναι MIDDLE present τιθέσθαι aorist θέσθαι infinitives

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present ἱστάναι aorist στῆναι MIDDLE present ἱστάσθαι aorist --- infinitives

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present διδόναι aorist δοῦναι MIDDLE present διδόσθαι aorist δόσθαι infinitives

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs Ιn the participle mood, –μι verbs resemble the 1 st (weak) aorist. –In the active, the forms are analogous to πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν. –The middle participles all use the regular - μενος -η -ον.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present δεικνύς δεικνῦσα δεικνύν aorist regular 1 st (weak) MIDDLE present δεικνύμενος -η -ον aorist regular 1 st (weak) Participles

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present τιθείς τιθεῖσα τιθέν aorist θείς θεῖσα θέν MIDDLE present τιθέμενος -η -ον aorist θέμενος -η -ον Participles The active forms are like the regular aorist passive (Chapter 22.3).

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present ἱστάς ἱστᾶσα ἱστάν aorist στάς στᾶσα στάν MIDDLE present ἱστάμενος -η -ον aorist --- Participles The active forms resemble πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ACTIVE present διδούς διδοῦσα διδόν aorist δούς δοῦσα δόν MIDDLE present διδόμενος -η -ον aorist δόμενος -η -ον Participles

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 –μι verbs Ιn the imperative mood, –μι verbs are mostly regular. In the present active, the 2 nd person singular ending – ε contracts (δείκνυ, τίθει, ἵστη, δίδου). In the aorist active, the 2 nd person singular forms are θές, στῆθι, and δός.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in - ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

38 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων (similar to σώφρων –ον ). For the full declension, see section 5.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. –ἀγαθός -ή -όν “good” –  ἀμείνων –ον or βελτίων –ον or κρείττων –ον “better” –  ἄριστος –η –ον or βέλτιστος –η –ον or κράτιστος –η –ον “best”

40 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος In rare cases, an adjective may display both types of comparative. –βραχύς βραχεῖα βραχύ “short” –  βραχίων –ον or βραχύτερος –α –ον “shorter” –βράχιστος –η –ον or βραχύτ ατ ος –α –ον “shortest”

41 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος Note the difference in meaning of this comparative. –ἕκαστος -η –ον “each” –  ἑκάτερος -α -ον “each (of two)”

42 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –ἐχθρός -ή -όν “hostile” –  ἐχθίων –ον “more hostile” –  ἔχθιστος –η –ον “most hostile”

43 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –κακός -ή -όν “bad” –  κακίων –ον or ἥττων –ον “worse” –  κάκιστος –η –ον “worst”

44 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –καλός -ή -όν “beautiful” –  καλλίων –ον “more beautiful” –  κάλλιστος –η –ον “most beautiful”

45 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –μέγας μεγάλη μέγα “big” –  μείζων –ον “bigger” –  μέγιστος –η –ον “biggest”

46 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –μικρός -ά -όν “small” –  ἐλάττων –ον or μικρότερος –α –ον “smaller” –  ἐλάχιστος -η -ον or μικρότατος –η –ον “smallest”

47 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –ὀλίγος -ή -όν “small” –  μείων, μεῖον or ἐλάττων –ον “smaller” –  ὀλίγιστος -η -ον or μικρότατος –η –ον “smallest”

48 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –πολύς πολλά πολύ “many” –  πλείων πλεῖον or πλέων πλέον “more” –  πλεῖστος –η –ον “most”

49 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –ῥᾴδιος –α –ον “easy” –  ῥᾴων ῥᾷον “easier” –  ῥᾷστος –η –ον “easiest”

50 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος As in English, a handful of common adjectives form their comparative and superlative irregularly. In Greek, these adjectives mostly have comparatives in –(ι)ων. –ταχύς ταχεῖα ταχύ “swift” –  θάττων, θᾶττον “swifter” –  τάχιστος –η –ον “swiftest”

51 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1.Athematic (-μι) verbs 2.Athematic (-μι) verbs, first principal part 3.Athematic (-μι) verbs, third principal part 4.Further comparison of adjectives in -ιων, -ιστος 5.Declension of comparatives -ιων

52 Shelmerdine Chapter Declension of comparatives -ιων Most 3 rd declension adjectives regularly drop the final vowel (or -ρο- ) from their stem and add -ιων to form the comparative and -ιστος to form the superlative. –ἡδύς ἡδεῖα ἡδύ “sweet” –ἡδύ- (stem) –  ἡδίων –ον “sweeter” –  ἥδιστος –η –ον “sweetest”

53 Shelmerdine Chapter Declension of comparatives -ιων This type of comparative is declined like the adjective σώφρων –ον “prudent” except that the nom and acc pl, and acc sg, m/f forms sometimes contract.

54 Shelmerdine Chapter Declension of comparatives –ιων Like third declension nouns, the masculine and feminine forms are identical. singular ἡδίων ἡδίονος ἡδίονι ἡδίονα  ἡδίω ἥδιον plural ἡδίονες  ἡδίους ἡδιόνων ἡδίοσι ἡδίονας  ἡδίους Voc. = nom.

55 Shelmerdine Chapter Declension of comparatives –ιων The neuter forms are the same as the masculine/feminine, but with the Neuter Law applied. singular ἥδιον ἡδίονος ἡδίονι ἥδιον Voc. = nom. plural ἡδίονα  ἡδίω ἡδιόνων ἡδίοσι ἡδίονα  ἡδίω Voc. = nom.

56 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 for tomorrow (Wednesday, February 23, 2011): Quiz: endings for -μι verbs (slides 7-8). Prepare Reading “Crocodiles” for class.

57 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ὁ δὲ κροκόδειλος τοῦ χειμῶνος ἐσθίει οὐδέν. ἡ δὲ θήλεια τίκτει μὲν ᾠὰ ἐν γῇ καὶ ἐκλέπει καὶ ἐκεῖ διατρίβει τὸ πλεῖστον τῆς ἡμέρας, τὴν δὲ νύκτα πᾶσαν ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ· θερμότερον γὰρ δή ἐστι τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς δρόσου.

58 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ὁ δὲ κροκόδειλος τοῦ χειμῶνος ἐσθίει οὐδέν. ἡ δὲ θήλεια τίκτει μὲν ᾠὰ ἐν γῇ καὶ ἐκλέπει καὶ ἐκεῖ διατρίβει τὸ πλεῖστον τῆς ἡμέρας, τὴν δὲ νύκτα πᾶσαν ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ· θερμότερον γὰρ δή ἐστι τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς δρόσου.

59 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 πάντων δὲ ὧν ἡμεῖς γιγνώσκομεν ζῴων ὁ κροκόδειλος ἐξ ἐλαχίστου μέγιστος γίγνεται· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ᾠὰ χηνῶν οὐ πολλῷ μείζον’ ἐστίν, αὐξανόμενος δὲ ὁ κροκόδειλος γίγνεται ἑπτακαίδεκα πήχεις καὶ μείζων ἔτι.

60 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 πάντων δὲ (ὧν ἡμεῖς γιγνώσκομεν) ζῴων ὁ κροκόδειλος ἐξ ἐλαχίστου μέγιστος γίγνεται· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ᾠὰ χηνῶν οὐ πολλῷ μείζον’ ἐστίν, αὐξανόμενος δὲ ὁ κροκόδειλος γίγνεται ἑπτακαίδεκα πήχεις καὶ μείζων ἔτι.

61 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ἔχει δὲ ὀφθαλμοὺς μὲν ὑὸς, ὀδόντος δὲ μεγάλους· γλῶτταν δὲ μόνον θηρίων οὐκ ἔχει. οὐδὲ κινεῖ τὴν κάτω γνάθον, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἄνω γνάθον προσάγει τῇ κάτω. τυφλὸς δὲ ἐν ὕδατί ἐστιν, ἐν δὲ τῇ γῇ εὖ ὁρᾷ.

62 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ἔχει δὲ ὀφθαλμοὺς μὲν ὑὸς, ὀδόντας δὲ μεγάλους· γλῶτταν δὲ μόνον θηρίων οὐκ ἔχει. οὐδὲ κινεῖ τὴν κάτω γνάθον, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἄνω γνάθον προσάγει τῇ κάτω. τυφλὸς δὲ ἐν ὕδατί ἐστιν, ἐν δὲ τῇ γῇ εὖ ὁρᾷ.

63 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 τοῖς μὲν δὴ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἱεροί εἰσι οἱ κροκόδειλοι, τοῖς δὲ οὔ. οἱ δὲ περὶ Θήβας οἰκοῦντες νομίζουσιν αὐτοὺς εἶναι ἱερωτάτους. ἐκ πάντων δὲ ἕνα θεραπεύουσι κροκόδειλον, χρυσὸν θέντες εἴς τε τὰ ὦτα καὶ περὶ τοὺς πόδας. οἱ δὲ περὶ Ἐλεφαντίνην πόλιν οἰκοῦντες καὶ ἐσθίουσιν αὐτοὺς, οὐ νομίζοντες ἱεροὺς εἶναι.

64 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 τοῖς μὲν δὴ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἱεροί εἰσι οἱ κροκόδειλοι, τοῖς δὲ οὔ. οἱ δὲ περὶ Θήβας οἰκοῦντες νομίζουσιν αὐτοὺς εἶναι ἱερωτάτους. ἐκ πάντων δὲ ἕνα θεραπεύουσι κροκόδειλον, χρυσὸν θέντες εἴς τε τὰ ὦτα καὶ περὶ τοὺς πόδας. οἱ δὲ περὶ Ἐλεφαντίνην πόλιν οἰκοῦντες καὶ ἐσθίουσιν αὐτοὺς, οὐ νομίζοντες ἱεροὺς εἶναι.

65 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ὁ δὲ βουλόμενος κροκόδειλον αἱρεῖν νῶτον ὑὸς τίθησι περὶ ἄγκιστρον καὶ εἰσβάλλει εἰς τὸν ποταμόν· αὐτὸς δὲ ἐν τῇ γῇ ἔχων ὗν ζωόν, αὐτὸν τύπτει. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ κροκόδειλος σπεύδει πρὸς τὴν φωνήν, εὑρὼν δὲ τὸ νῶτον καταπίνει· οἱ δὲ ἐν τῇ γῇ λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν. πρῶτον δὲ πάντων πηλῷ καλύπτουσι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ· ἔπειτα ῥᾴδιον ἐστιν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι.

66 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 ὁ δὲ βουλόμενος κροκόδειλον αἱρεῖν νῶτον ὑὸς τίθησι περὶ ἄγκιστρον καὶ εἰσβάλλει εἰς τὸν ποταμόν· αὐτὸς δὲ ἐν τῇ γῇ ἔχων ὗν ζωόν, αὐτὸν τύπτει. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ κροκόδειλος σπεύδει πρὸς τὴν φωνήν, εὑρὼν δὲ τὸ νῶτον καταπίνει· οἱ δὲ ἐν τῇ γῇ λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν. πρῶτον δὲ πάντων πηλῷ καλύπτουσι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ· ἔπειτα ῥᾴδιον ἐστιν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι.

67 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 1 Ὦ λογισμὲ τέκνων, παθῶν τύραννε, καὶ εὐσέβεια μητρὶ τέκνων ποθεινοτέρα. εὐσέβεια –ας ἡ piety λογισμός –οῦ ὁ reckoning πάθος –ους τό suffering πόθεινος –η –ον desired

68 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 2 μήτηρ δυοῖν προκειμένων, εὐσεβείας καὶ τῆς ἑπτὰ υἱῶν σωτηρίας προσκαίρου κατὰ τὴν τοῦ τυράννου ὑπόσχεσιν, 3 τὴν εὐσέβειαν μᾶλλον ἠγάπησεν τὴν σῴζουσαν εἰς αἰωνίαν ζωὴν κατὰ θεόν. ἀγαπάω yearn to αἰώνιος –α –ον eternal δυοῖν (gen.) two εὐσέβεια –ας ἡ piety ζωή -ῆς ἡ life πρόσκαιρος –ον temporary προκειμένων when they (the two things, εὐσέβεια and σωτηρία) lay there in front (of her) σωτηρία –ας ἡ safety ὑπόσχεσις –εως ἡ promise ψυχή -ῆς ἡ soul

69 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 4 ὦ τίνα τρόπον ἠθολογήσαιμι φιλότεκνα γονέων πάθη. ψυχῆς τε καὶ μορφῆς ὁμοιότητα εἰς μικρὸν παιδὸς χαρακτῆρα θαυμάσιον ἐναποσφραγίζομεν, μάλιστα διὰ τὸ τῶν παθῶν τοῖς γεννηθεῖσιν τὰς μητέρας τῶν πατέρων καθεστάναι συμπαθεστέρας. γονεύς –έως ὁ parent γεννηθείς (aor. pass. part.) one who has been born ἐναποσφραγίζω put a seal onto θαυμάσιος –α –ον awesome τὸ …καθεστάναι (mothers) standing up μορφή -ῆς ἡ shape ὁμοιότης –τητος ἡ similarity πάθος –ους τό suffering συμπαθής -ές sympathetic τίνα τρόπον ἠθολογήσαιμι How can I explain φιλότεκνον –η –ον child-loving ψυχή -ῆς ἡ soul χηρακτήρ –τῆρος ὁ character, stamp

70 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 5 ὅσῳ γὰρ καὶ ἀσθενόψυχοι καὶ πολυγονώτεραι ὑπάρχουσιν αἱ μητέρες, τοσούτῳ μᾶλλόν εἰσιν φιλοτεκνότεραι. 6 πασῶν δὲ τῶν μητέρων ἐγένετο ἡ τῶν ἑπτὰ παίδων μήτηρ φιλοτεκνοτέρα, ἥτις ἑπτὰ κυοφορίαις τὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐπιφυτευομένη φιλοστοργίαν ἀσθενόψυχος –ον weak-souled ἐγένετο = ἦν ἐπιφυτεύω plant in ἥτις = ἥ κυοφορία –ας ἡ pregnancy ὅσῳ…τοσούτῳ by just as much πολύγονος –ον giving birth a lot ὑπάρχω come to be φιλοστοργία –ας ἡ tender love φιλότεκνον –η –ον child-loving

71 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 7 καὶ διὰ πολλὰς τὰς καθ’ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν ὠδῖνας ἠναγκασμένη τὴν εἰς αὐτοὺς ἔχειν συμπάθειαν, 8 διὰ τὸν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν φόβον ὑπερεῖδεν τὴν τῶν τέκνων πρόσκαιρον σωτηρίαν. (Μακκαβίων Δ ) ἀναγκάζω compel πρόσκαιρος –ον temporary συμπάθεια –ας ἡ sympathy, compassion σωτηρία –ας ἡ safety φόβος –ου ὁ fear ὑπερεῖδεν (aor.) looked past ὠδῖς -ῖνος ἡ labor pain

72 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 for tomorrow (Thursday, February 24, 2011): Quiz: no quiz the day before an exam. Finish reading and review for Exam 2.

73 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 Exam 2 (Monday, February 28, 2011): For δείκνυμι (principal parts given), write out all forms of the 1 st /2 nd /3 rd person, sing/pl, present/imperfect/aorist indicative/infinitive. Test will specify either active or middle. Given a noun and verb, write out the full declension of the noun with its definite article and the present participle of the verb (test will specify either active or middle).

74 Shelmerdine Chapter 23 Exam 2 (Monday, February 28, 2011): Translate a brief passage into clear, idiomatic English. Parse selected words from this passage.


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