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NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA TETRA The pan-European trunking standard TErrestrial Trunked RAdio.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA TETRA The pan-European trunking standard TErrestrial Trunked RAdio."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA TETRA The pan-European trunking standard TErrestrial Trunked RAdio

2 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τι είναι το TETRA? Νέο Ευρωπαϊκό Πρότυπο για ραδιοεπικοινωνίες Καθορίστηκε από το ETSI (1995, 22 Χώρες) Πλήρως Ψηφιακό Επαγγελματικό Σύστημα Κινητών Επικοινωνιών Παρέχει υψηλό βαθμό ασφάλειας και αξιοπιστίας Υποστηρίζεται από πολλούς κατασκευαστές Θα χρησιμοποιηθεί από τις περισσότερες Ευρωπαϊκές χώρες

3 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τι είναι το ETSI? Ευρωπαϊκό Ινστιτούτο Τηλεπικοινωνιακών προτύπων Παράγει Τηλεπικοινωνιακά πρότυπα για τις χώρες της Ενωμένης Ευρώπης και τις λοιπές δυτικοευρωπαϊκές χώρες Τα πρότυπα του ETSI είναι προαιρετικά για τις χώρες μέλη

4 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Οι Διεπαφές του TETRA AIR IF: Ασύρματη διεπαφή TEI:Διεπαφή Τερματικών συσκευών (ανάπτυξη εφαρμογών data) ISI: Διασύνδεση δικτύων TETRA DMO: Απ’ευθείας σύνδεση τερματικών AIR IF ISI TEI DMO Open interfaces: BS Controller Gateway

5 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA Connectivity TEI OK C SERV69 F B ABC STOCKHOLM TRAFIK 2 ISI LAN/WAN PSTN PABX Command & Control Systems Public Data Network Internet ISDN Trunking Networks Conventional PMR Networks 2B+D 30B+D Conventional Base Stations Customer Care & Billing Systems

6 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA Voice + Data Services Tetra Network Mobile Termination Terminal Equipment Network Termination Terminal Equipment Terminal Interface Terminal Interface Man-machine Interface Man-machine Interface TELESERVICES BEARER SERVICES

7 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Διεπαφές TETRA 1.System air interface 2.Direct mode air interface 3.Man-machine interface 4.Radio data peripheral interface 5.Local dispatcher 6.Gateway to external network 7.Remote line connected terminal 8.Inter system interface 9.Network management interface Local Dispatcher Inf. 7 Remote Line Dispatcher Network Manager 9 Inter System Interface Base Station Gateway System Infrastructure Base Station ISDN PSTN/ISDN PABX/PDN 3 Infrastructure Controller

8 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Νέα χαρακτηριστικά του TETRA Πλήρης αμφίδρομη λειτουργία Ταυτόχρονη μετάδοση φωνής και δεδομένων με μια σύνδεση Κρυπτογράφηση δύο επιπέδων: –Βασικού επιπέδου στην (ασύρματη διεπαφή); –Κρυπτογράφιση απ’άκρη σ’άκρη (end-to-end encryption) ειδικά για χρήστες του τομέα Δημόσιας Ασφάλειας Λειτουργία Ανοικτού Διαύλου (open channel mode) Λειτουργία Παρακολούθησης (dual-watch mode) Υψηλός ρυθμός μετάδοσης δεδομένων

9 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Βασικές Υπηρεσίες TETRA Φωνητικές Υπηρεσίες: Συνήθης κλήση Ομαδική κλήση Ομαδική κλήση με επιβεβαίωση Κλήση τύπου Broadcast Συνήθης ή κρυπτογραφημένη συνδιάλεξη Υπηρεσίες Δεδομένων:Χωρίς προστασία μέχρι 28,8 kBits/s Με προστασία μέχρι 19,2 kBits/s Με μεταγωγή Κυκλώματος ( Circuit Switched ) Με μεταγωγή Πακέτου ( Packet Switched )

10 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA Voice + Data Services Bearer services: Circuit mode data 7.2/14.4/21.6/28.8 kbit/s Circuit mode protected data 4.8/9.6/14.4/19.2 kbit/s Circuit mode heavily protected data 2.4/4.8/7.2/9.6 kbit/s Connection oriented packet data Connectionless packet data Teleservices: Speech for individual call, group call, acknowledged group call, broadcast call Status and short data messages

11 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Essential Supplementary Services Call Authorised by Dispatcher Dispatcher verifies call request before allowing call to proceed. Area Selection Defined areas of operation for users. Can be redefined on a call by call basis. Access Priority Radio Unit uplink access prioritisation during congested periods. Priority Call Access to network resources can be prioritised Late Entry Latecomers may join a call in progress. Pre-emptive Priority Call This call has the highest uplink priority and highest priority access to network resources. If system is busy the lowest priority communication will be dropped to allow this call to continue. Equivalent to an "Emergency Call" in PMR terms. Discrete Listening Authorised RU may monitor a communication without being identified. Ambience Listening Dispatcher may turn on the transmitter of a RU without any indication being provided on RU. Can be used in hijack situations to listen what is happening in the car. Dynamic Group Number Assignment Allows the dispatcher to program new group numbers into the RUs over the air. Can also be used to group participants in an ongoing call.

12 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Optional Supplementary Services Calling Line Identification Present Displays the unit ID of calling party Connected Line Identification Present Displays the unit ID of the called party Calling/Connected Line Identification Restriction Either party may prevent display of unit ID Call Report Displays calling party ID on a busy RU Talking Party Identification RU automatically identifies itself whilst in a group call Call Forward Unconditional Allows an RU to forward all calls to another RU Call Forward on Subscriber Busy Allows an RU to forward calls if RU busy Call Forward on Subscriber Not Reachable Allows an RU to forward calls when out of service or switched off Call Forward on No Reply Allows an RU to forward all unanswered calls List Search Call Incoming call will sequence through a user defined list until call is answered Short Number Addressing Short number dialling Call Waiting Notification of an incoming call to a busy RU Call Hold Allows user to interrupt existing call and re- establish when required Call Completion Busy Subscriber Incoming call will wait until subscriber is free before calling back Call Completion No Reply Incoming call will wait until subscriber has made a call before calling back Transfer of Control Initiator of a group call can transfer ownership to another party Include Call Ability to include an RU in an existing call Advice of charge Call charge information at start, during or end of call Call Barring Ability to bar a call from/to a user defined list Call Retention Ability to prevent call being pre-empted

13 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Χρήστες συστημάτων TETRA Επιχειρήσεις κοινής Ωφέλειας Υπουργεία και Αστυνομία Αγροτικέςπεριοχές Ιδιωτικές Εταιρείες με μεγάλο στόλο οχημάτων

14 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τομέας Δημόσιας Υγείας και Ασφάλειας Αστυνομία (Τελωνεία,, Τροχαία κ.λ.π.) Στρατός Πυροσβεστική και οργανισμοί Διάσωσης Πρώτες Βοήθειες και Ιατρικές υπηρεσίες έκτακτης ανάγκης

15 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τυπικό δίκτυο TETRA για τον Τομέα Δημόσιας Ασφάλειας

16 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Υπηρεσίες TETRA για τον Τομέα Δημόσιας Ασφάλειας Service 4Dispatcher 4Clear and ciphered voice 4PABX/PSTN manual access 4PABX/PSTN automatic access 4Image transmission 4Host database access 4Radio Local Network (RLN) 4Computer Aided Despatching + G.P.S. dead Reckoning Digital Map + G.P.S. dead Reckoning + G.P.S. dead Reckoning TETRA Network T Automatic T Manual HOST Command & Control Centre + R.L.N. + + Dual watch PABX PSTN PABX PSTN

17 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Resources management and positioning EVENTDECISION INTERVENTION TETRA NETWORK DATA BANKS

18 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΕΙΣ ΚΟΙΝΗΣ ΩΦΕΛΕΙΑΣ Δίκτυα Παροχή Ενέργειας (Αέριο, Πετρέλαιο, Ηλεκτρική Ενέργεια κ.ά.) Μεταφορές (Τραίνα, Στόλοι οχημάτων κ.ά.) …

19 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Εφαρμογές πελατών Operational Services:Voice –Radio Communications with remote areas (extraction wells, booster stations, etc) and Mobile Operators (maintenance and emergency squads, etc). –Telephone Communications between peripheral offices, headquarters, and PSTN. Operational Services: Data –Efficient Informatic Networks for transmission of data regarding Company’s activities (ex: Energy Production, Treatment Processes, etc.) –Administration and Management. –Computer applications for production forecast and accounting. –On - line tasking and job control.

20 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Operational Services: Remote Control –Radio Remote Control of Gas Oil fields, Booster Stations, Oil Treatment Plants, Power Substations, Railways Stations, etc. –Telesurveillance for Remote Sites to prevent fires, intrusions and terrorist attacks. –Remote metering. Commercial Services: (Service Providing) –Voice:-Mobile Communications (Radio Telephony) -Fixed Communications (PABX Network) –Data:-Electronic Payment -Others (fax facilities...) Εφαρμογές (συνέχεια)

21 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Υπηρεσίες Κέντρου Ελέγχου υποστηριζόμενες από το TETRA On-board sub-system TETRA NETWORK (voice/data) TYPE OF ALARM EVENT RADIO OPERATORS CONTROL CENTRE INTERVENTION MANAGEMENT OPERATION MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION BSC/BCF Voice Data Satellite Antenna GPS SATELLITE EXTERNAL DATA BANK GPS Satellite Antenna Data acquisition (Gateway towards external Data Banks). Vehicles localisation Data transfer toward operative locations Communications between centre and periphery. models and statistics

22 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Σύστημα TETRA : Τηλεεπιτήρηση Remote Video Control of critical areas. Anti-intrusion Systems. Fire-alarm Systems. Access Control.

23 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA System: Telesurveillance example CCTV network MMMM D Videocameras Local Control CSM CENTER Radio TETRA Network M = Optical modulator D = Optical demodulator MI = Management interface CSM = Central system management Remote Area T/R

24 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Μονοκυψελωτό σύστημα TETRA

25 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Πολυκυψελωτό σύστημα TETRA SystemController SystemController

26 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Ζώνες Συχνοτήτων στην Ευρώπη MoU on common frequency allocation has been signed by most European countries Non-NATO countries may allocate military band for civil use (plans for commercial use atleast in Austria and Finland) Plans for civil TETRA networks in MHz band in many European countries (already 2 licences in UK) Other planned frequencies: and / MHz NATO military use

27 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τεχνικά Χαρακτηριστικά TETRA Channel Spacing:25 kHz Modulation:PI/4 DQPSK Channel Data Rate:36 kBits/s Speech Code Rate:appr. 4,8 kBits/s Access Method:FDMA/TDMA, 4 Timeslots User Data Rate:7,2 kBits/s per Timeslot Variable Data Rate:2,4 up to 28,8 kBits/s

28 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TDMA Timeslot Channels "Downlink"Frequency Time "Uplink"Frequency Channel = Timeslot sequence (Frequency) 4 Channels per RF carrier occupying 25 kHz Channels may be used for control or traffic Base Station Downlink Uplink

29 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA TDMA speech calls use one channel data calls can use up to 4 channels (multi-slot data)

30 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά TETRA Το προσφερόμενο φάσμα χωρίζεται με διαίρεση συχνότητας (FDMA) σε κανάλια με εύρος ζώνης 25KHz το κάθε ένα FDMA TDMA Κάθε χρήστης έχει στη διάθεση του συγκεκριμένη χρονοθυρίδα που είναι χρονικά μετατοπισμένη κατά 2 θυρίδες στην κατερχόμενη ζεύξη Κάθε κανάλι χωρίζεται με διαίρεση χρόνου σε 4 χρονοθυρίδες f1 fn f3 f2

31 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA Οικονομική Τεχνολογία Trunking technology supports controlled use of shared networks Four-channel TDMA gives excellent spectrum economy - 4 channels in one 25 kHz carrier TDMA makes cost- effective base stations

32 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA Αξιόπιστη τεχνολογία Effective priority schemes ensure delivery of important messages Direct mode communications, mobile repeater and gateway functions give added reliability and availability REPEATER DMO GATEWAY

33 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Speech Codec & TDMA Frame A/D ACELP speech coding 4.56 kbit/s Channel coding 7.2 kbit/s Speech in 4:1 TDMA Frame MUX Gross Bit Rate 36 kbit/s D/A ACELP speech decoding 4.56 kbit/s Channel decoding 7.2 kbit/s Speech out DEMUX

34 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Vocoder Principle Analog Speech 60 ms Framelength Transformation using a Codebook Samples DA Conversion of Speech Radio Transmisson

35 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Speech Compression TS 2TS 3TS 3TS 2 "Inbound" Frequency Speech frame 1 Speech frame 2 60 ms of real speech are coded and compressed for transmission in 14 ms Allows four voice channels to be time multiplexed on carrier frequency Transmitting Radio Micro TS 4 TS 1 TS 4

36 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Speech Expansion "Outbound" Frequency 14 ms of digitally coded speech is decoded and expanded back to the original 60 ms analog voice signal Receiving Radio Laudspeaker TS 2TS 3TS 3TS 2 Speech frame 1 Speech frame 2 TS 4 TS 1 TS 4

37 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TDMA Frame Structure Slow Associated Control CHannel (SACCH). Gross bit rate 17 x 510 bits / 1.02 s = 8.5 kbits/s/channel Hyperframe (61.2s) Multiframe (1.02s) TDMA frame (56.67ms) control frame Time slot (14.167ms) = 510 modulating bits

38 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Essential Supplementary Services for Public Safety Application Call Authorised by Dispatcher CAD Area Selection AS Access Priority AP Priority Call PC Late Entry LE Pre-emptive Priority Call PPC Discreet Listening DL Ambience Listening AL Dynamic Group Number Assignment DGNA

39 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Existing TETRA Public Safety Plans UK Home Office: users from police & fire Germany: users from police & rescue Netherlands Home Office: users from police, fire & ambulance Belgian Home Office: users from police, fire & ambulance Finland: users from police, fire & rescue, border guard + some other offices Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Sweden, Norway, Hungary, Romania, Estonia,...

40 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS TETRA vs. Cellular Systems Different use requires different tools GSM is excellent system for cellular telephony Professional mobile radio needs appropriate technology OK C SERV 69 F B ABC STOCKHOLM TRAFIK 2

41 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Build PMR by GSM? Technical reasons Direct mode 300 millisecond call setup semi-duplex group communication Cost reasons Only high volumes make cellular phones cheaper compared with professional radios Easier to develop a TETRA system than modify GSM Market strategy reasons Too small volumes for cellular phone industry Too small volumes for GSM infra industry Too risky for GSM operators

42 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Spectrum Efficiency


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