Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 31.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 31."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 31

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 parse/parsing 1 st, 2 nd or 3 RD PERSON SINGULAR or PLURAL PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE, AORIST, PERFECT or PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE, INFINITIVE, IMPERATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, OPTATIVE, PARTICIPLE ACTIVE, MIDDLE, PASSIVE

5 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system The perfect tense refers to a completed action which results in the current situation. Recall that the aorist tense refers to a single past action. Recall that the imperfect tense refers to ongoing or repeated past action.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system Imperfect (incomplete past) –I was climbing the tree. Aorist (single action) –I climbed the tree. Perfect (completed action) –I have climbed the tree.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect system The present, imperfect, and aorist tenses together make up about 90% of the verb forms in most ancient Greek texts. The present, future, imperfect, aorist and perfect tenses together make up over 99% of the verb forms in most ancient Greek texts.

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

9 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect adds a reduplication to the beginning of the stem. –For a stem beginning with a consonant, this reduplication means the consonant doubles, separated by an –ε- λυ-  λελυ- γραφ-  γεγραφ-

10 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect adds a reduplication to the beginning of the stem. Most verbs also add the tense marker -κ- to the end of the stem. λυ-  λελυκ-

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular -α (I) -ας (you) -ε(ν) (s/he, it) plural -αμεν (we) -ατε (you, y’all) -ασι(ν) (they) the endings for the perfect (like the weak [1 st ] aorist endings, except in the 3 rd plural)

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular λύ ω λύ εις λύ ει plural λύ ομεν λύ ετε λύ ουσι present tense present stem = λυ

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular ἔλυον ἔλυες ἔλυε plural ἐλύομεν ἐλύετε ἔλυον imperfect tense stem = λυ Note the addition of the augment.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular λύσ ω λύσ εις λύσ ει plural λύσ ομεν λύσ ετε λύσ ουσι future stem = λυσ Note the addition of the σ to the stem.

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular ἔλυσα ἔλυσας ἔλυσε plural ἐλύσαμεν ἐλύσατε ἔλυσαν Weak (1 st ) aorist tense stem = λυσ Note the addition of both the augment and the σ to the stem.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular λέλυκα λέλυκας λέλυκε plural λελύκαμεν λελύκατε λελύκασι perfect tense stem = λελυκ Note the addition of both the reduplication and the κ to the stem.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The perfect tense refers to a completed action which results in the current situation. The pluperfect tense refers to a completed action which resulted in a specific situation in the past.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) Imperfect (incomplete past) –I was climbing the tree. Aorist (single action) –I climbed the tree. Perfect (completed action) –I have climbed the tree. Pluperfect (completed action in the past) –I had climbed the tree.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) The pluperfect is the secondary version of the perfect indicative, so it adds an augment (like the imperfect and aorist). Like the perfect tense, it adds both a reduplication to the beginning of the stem and the tense marker -κ- to the end of the stem. λυ-  ἐλελυκ-

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 singular ἐλελύκην ἐλελύκης ἐλελύκει(ν) plural ἐλελύκεμεν ἐλελύκετε ἐλελύκεσαν pluperfect tense stem = ἐλελυκ Note the addition of the augment, reduplication and κ to the stem.

21 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) Watch out for the pluperfect in the readings, but it is a very rare tense and you are not responsible for it in this class.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg present indicative active is the first principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg future indicative active is the second principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg aorist indicative active is the third principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Looking up a Greek verb The 1 st sg perfect indicative active is the fourth principal part of a verb –ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα lead, bring –γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα write –διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα pursue –λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα loose, set free –πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade –πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα send

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

27 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive use the same stem as the active, except without the -κ- marker. For reference, this stem is shown in the 5 th principal part.

28 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative use the standard endings: –primary endings -μαι -σαι -ται -μεθα -σθε -νται for the present, future, and perfect tenses. –secondary endings -μην -σο -το -μεθα -σθε -ντο for the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect tenses.

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ACTIVE singular λέλυκα λέλυκας λέλυκε plural λελύκαμεν λελύκατε λελύκασι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular λέλυμαι λέλυσαι λέλυται plural λελύμεθα λέλυσθε λέλυνται perfect tense stem = λελυ (+ κ in active)

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ACTIVE singular ἐλελύκην ἐλελύκης ἐλελύκει plural ἐλελύκεμεν ἐλελύκετε ἐλελύκεσαν MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular ἐλελύμην ἐλέλυσο ἐλέλυτο plural ἐλελύμεθα ἐλέλυσθε ἐλέλυντο pluperfect tense stem = ἐλελυ (+ κ in active)

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Genitive of agent When the verb is passive, the agent of the action goes in the genitive following ὑπό : –ὁ Περικλῆς διώκει τοὺς Πέρσας. “Pericles pursues the Persians.” (active) –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ὑπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους. “The Persians are pursued by Pericles.” (passive)

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Genitive of agent An instrument is expressed by the dative, whether the verb is active or passive: –ὁ Περικλῆς διώκει ἁμάξῃ τοὺς Πέρσας. “Pericles pursues the Persians in a chariot.” –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ἁμάξῃ ὑπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους. “The Persians are pursued by Pericles in a chariot.” –οἱ Πέρσαι διώκονται ἁμάξαις. “The Persians are pursued by chariots.”

34 Shelmerdine Chapter The dative of personal agent When the verb is perfect and passive, however, the personal agent is usually in the dative: –ὁ Περικλῆς λέλυκε τοὺς ἵππους. “Pericles has set the horses free.” –οἱ ἵπποι λέλυνται τῷ Περικλεῖ. “The horses have been set free by Pericles.”

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

36 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) perfect infinitives –endings: – έναι (active) – σθαι (middle) –  λελυκέναι (active) λελύσθαι (middle) The accent for these infinitives is fixed on the penult.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) The perfect infinitive is used only to emphasize the completeness of some action: –οὐκ ἐθέλω λύειν τὴν πόλιν· ἀλλ’ ἐθέλω καταλελύσθαι. –I don’t want to set the city free: I want it completely destroyed!”

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 1.The perfect system 2.The perfect and pluperfect active indicative of regular verbs (4 th principal part) 3.The perfect and pluperfect middle/passive indicative of regular verbs (5 th principal part) 4.The dative of personal agent 5.The perfect infinitive (4 th and 5 th principal parts) 6.Result (consecutive) clauses

39 Shelmerdine Chapter Result (consecutive) clauses This chapter introduces ways to express result in ancient Greek. A result clause (also called a “consecutive” clause), as its name suggests, refers to one action which is the result of another action.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter Result (consecutive) clauses English can express several types of result clauses: –Socrates is such a great man that he always tells the truth. –Socrates is so wise that he always tells the truth. –Socrates is too wise not to tell the truth.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter Result (consecutive) clauses In Greek, ὥστε introduces a result clause. Usually a word such as οὕτως, τοιοῦτος or τοσοῦτος sets up the clause: –ὁ Σωκράτης τοσοῦτός ἐστιν ὥστε τἀληθῆ λέγει ἀεί. Socrates is such a great man that he always tells the truth. –οὕτως ὁ Σωκράτης σοφός ἐστιν ὥστε τἀληθῆ λέγει ἀεί. Socrates is so wise that he always tells the truth.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter Result (consecutive) clauses If a comparative sets up the clause, ἤ will also appear: –ὁ Σωκράτης σοφώτερός ἐστιν ἢ ὥστε τὰ ψευδῆ εἶπεν. –Socrates is too wise to have told lies. (Socrates is wiser than to have told lies).

43 Shelmerdine Chapter Result (consecutive) clauses If the result has not actually happened, but is hypothetical or theoretical, the verb in the result clause becomes an infinitive: –ὁ Σωκράτης τοιοῦτός ἐστιν ὥστε τἀληθῆ λέγειν ἀεί. Socrates is the sort of person who always tells the truth. –ὁ Σωκράτης σοφός ἐστιν ὥστε τὰ ψευδῆ μὴ λέγειν. Socrates is wise enough not to tell lies.

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 for next class (Tuesday, April 26, 2011): Quiz: Vocabulary Chapter 32 –Verbs: omit ἐκβαίνω Prepare Xenophon Reading

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 Θουκυδίδης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος

46 ΣικελίαἈθῆναι Πύλος

47 Σπάρτα Ἀθῆναι Πύλος

48 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 τοσοῦτος δὲ ἦν ὁ χειμών, ὥστε κατήνεγκε τὰς τῶν Ἀθηναίων ναῦς εἰς τὴν Πύλον· ἔδοξε δὲ τῷ Δημοσθένει, ὃς ἦν στρατηγός, εὐθὺς τειχίζειν τὸ χωρίον· εὐπορία γὰρ ἦν ξύλων τε καὶ λίθων. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται οὕτω ταχέως εἰργάζοντο, ὥστε ἓξ ἡμερῶν τὸ χωρίον ἐτείχισαν· οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ τὸν μὲν Δημοσθένη μετὰ νεῶν πέντε ἐνταῦθα φύλακα κατέλιπον, ταῖς δὲ πλείοσι ναυσὶ πρὸς Σικελίαν ἀπέπλευσαν. οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι εὐθὺς ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὴν Πύλον, καὶ ἐκέλευσαν τοὺς συμμάχους βοηθεῖν ὡς τάχιστα καὶ πέμψαι ἑξήκοντα ναῦς· παρῆν δὲ ἤδη καὶ ὁ πεζὸς στρατός.

49 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 τοσοῦτος δὲ ἦν ὁ χειμών, ὥστε κατήνεγκε τὰς τῶν Ἀθηναίων ναῦς εἰς τὴν Πύλον· ἔδοξε δὲ τῷ Δημοσθένει, ὃς ἦν στρατηγός, εὐθὺς τειχίζειν τὸ χωρίον· εὐπορία γὰρ ἦν ξύλων τε καὶ λίθων. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται οὕτω ταχέως εἰργάζοντο, ὥστε ἓξ ἡμερῶν τὸ χωρίον ἐτείχισαν· οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ τὸν μὲν Δημοσθένη μετὰ νεῶν πέντε ἐνταῦθα φύλακα κατέλιπον, ταῖς δὲ πλείοσι ναυσὶ πρὸς Σικελίαν ἀπέπλευσαν.

50 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι εὐθὺς ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὴν Πύλον, καὶ ἐκέλευσαν τοὺς συμμάχους βοηθεῖν ὡς τάχιστα καὶ πέμψαι ἑξήκοντα ναῦς· παρῆν δὲ ἤδη καὶ ὁ πεζὸς στρατός.

51 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ὁ Δημοσθένης μετεπέμψατο ἄλλας ναῦς. οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς τῷ τεχίσματι προσβαλοῦντες κατά τε γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν, ἐλπίζοντες ῥᾳδίως αἱρήσειν τὸ χωρίον, ἀνθρώπων ὀλίγων ἐνόντων· διεβίβασαν δὲ ὁπλίτας εἰς τὴν νῆσον Σφακτηρίαν, ἣ ἐπικεῖται τῇ Πύλῳ, καὶ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἄλλους ἔταξεν, ὥστε τοῖς Ἀθηναίους τήν τε νῆσον πολεμίαν εἶναι τήν τε ἤπειρον. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο προσέβαλον μὲν τῷ τειχίσματι ναυσί τε ἅμα καὶ πεζῷ, μάτην δέ.

52 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ὁ Δημοσθένης μετεπέμψατο ἄλλας ναῦς. οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς τῷ τεχίσματι προσβαλοῦντες κατά τε γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν, ἐλπίζοντες ῥᾳδίως αἱρήσειν τὸ χωρίον, ἀνθρώπων ὀλίγων ἐνόντων· διεβίβασαν δὲ ὁπλίτας εἰς τὴν νῆσον Σφακτηρίαν, ἣ ἐπικεῖται τῇ Πύλῳ, καὶ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἄλλους ἔταξεν, ὥστε τοῖς Ἀθηναίους τήν τε νῆσον πολεμίαν εἶναι τήν τε ἤπειρον.

53 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο προσέβαλον μὲν τῷ τειχίσματι ναυσί τε ἅμα καὶ πεζῷ, μάτην δέ.

54 Πύλος Σφακτηρία ἐπικεῖται τῇ Πύλῳ

55 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ἐπεὶ δὲ πεντήκοντα ἄλλαι νῆες ἀφίκοντο, οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι προσέβαλον τῷ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων ναυτικῷ, ὥστε ἔκοψαν μὲν πολλὰς ναῦς, πέντε δὲ ἔλαβον, καὶ ἀπέβαλον πολλοὺς ἄνδρας ἐν τῇ νήσῳ. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ναυμαχίαν ἔδοξε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις εὐθὺς τὴν νῆσον περιπλεῖν καὶ φυλάττειν. εἰς δὲ τὴν Σπάρτην ὡς ἠγγέλθη τὰ γενόμενα περὶ Πύλον, ἔδοξε τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις σπονδὰς ποιήσασθαι καὶ πρέσβεις πέμψαι εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας, ὅπως τοὺς ἄνδρας ὡς τάχιστα σὼσειαν.

56 Shelmerdine Chapter 31 ἐπεὶ δὲ πεντήκοντα ἄλλαι νῆες ἀφίκοντο, οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι προσέβαλον τῷ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων ναυτικῷ, ὥστε ἔκοψαν μὲν πολλὰς ναῦς, πέντε δὲ ἔλαβον, καὶ ἀπέβαλον πολλοὺς ἄνδρας ἐν τῇ νήσῳ. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ναυμαχίαν ἔδοξε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις εὐθὺς τὴν νῆσον περιπλεῖν καὶ φυλάττειν. εἰς δὲ τὴν Σπάρτην ὡς ἠγγέλθη τὰ γενόμενα περὶ Πύλον, ἔδοξε τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις σπονδὰς ποιήσασθαι καὶ πρέσβεις πέμψαι εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας, ὅπως τοὺς ἄνδρας ὡς τάχιστα σὼσειαν.

57 Shelmerdine Chapter ἀπεκρίθη οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ ὄχλος, Ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν ἐκ τοῦ νόμου ὅτι ὁ Χριστὸς μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ πῶς σὺ λέγεις ὅτι δεῖ ὑψωθῆναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου; τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου; αἰών -ῶνος ὁ eternity ὄχλος –ου ὁ crowd ὑψόω lift up, exalt

58 Shelmerdine Chapter εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἔτι μικρὸν χρόνον τὸ φῶς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐστιν. περιπατεῖτε ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε, ἵνα μὴ σκοτία ὑμᾶς καταλάβῃ· καὶ ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ οὐκ οἶδεν ποῦ ὑπάγει. 36 ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε, πιστεύετε εἰς τὸ φῶς, ἵνα υἱοὶ φωτὸς γένησθε. ταῦτα ἐλάλησεν Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἐκρύβη ἀπ’ αὐτῶν. (Κατὰ Ἰωάννην ) καταλαμβάνω –λήψομαι –έλαβον overtake κρύπτω hide λαλέω speak, say περιπατέω live, walk around σκοτία –ας ἡ darkness ὑπάγω depart φῶς φωτός τό light


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