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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 13.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 13."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 13

2 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

3 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

4 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ Nouns with stems ending in -σ end in -ασ, -εσ or -οσ. –Only one noun in Greek has a stem ending in -οσ: αἰδώς, αἰδοῦς ἡ “shame.” –Very few nouns, most importantly γέρας, γέρως τό “prize” and γήρας, γήρως τό “old age,” have stems ending in -ασ. Most –σ stem nouns end in -εσ.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ When the stem of a 3rd declension noun ends in -εσ, the σ drops and the endings contract with the preceding ε: –ε + α = η –ε + ε = ει –ε + ο = ου –ε + ω = ω –If the contracted vowel is accented, it bears a circumflex (e.g., in the genitive plural).

6 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ When the stem of a 3rd declension noun ends in -εσ, the σ drops and the endings contract: –In the nominative singular, -εσς  -ης –In the dative plural, -εσσι  -εσι. The accusative plural is identical with the nominative plural, even for masculine and feminine nouns.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ Thus the forms of τριήρης, τριήρους ἡ “trireme” singular Nom. τριήρης Gen. τριήρους Dat. τριήρει Acc. τριήρη Voc. τριῆρες plural Nom. τριήρεις Gen. τριηρῶν Dat. τριήρεσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

8 The Trireme

9

10 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ Men’s names often follow this declension. Thus the forms of Σωκράτης, Σωκράτους ὁ “Socrates” singular Nom. Σωκράτης Gen. Σωκράτους Dat. Σωκράτει Acc. Σωκράτη or Σωκράτην Voc. Σώκρατες

11 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ Some men’s names have two ε ’s in their stem and contract twice in the nom. and dat. Thus the forms of Περικλῆς, Περικλέους ὁ “Pericles” singular Nom. Περικλῆς (< Περικλέης < Περικλέεσς ) Gen. Περικλέους (< Περικλέεος) Dat. Περικλεῖ (< Περικλέει < Περικλέε-ι) Acc. Περικλέα (< Περικλέεα) Voc. Περίκλεις (< Περίκλεες)

12 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ The most common words of this type are neuters. Thus τεῖχος, τείχους τό “wall” singular Nom. τεῖχος Gen. τείχους Dat. τείχει Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural Nom. τείχη Gen. τειχῶν Dat. τείχεσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. nom/acc/voc. sg.: τεῖχες  τεῖχος

13 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

14 Shelmerdine Chapter Principal parts of dental stem verbs Page 74 gives the first four principal parts for all the dental (δ, ζ [=σδ], θ, τ) stem verbs so far in your vocabulary. Recall that a dental (δ, ζ, θ, τ) followed by a σ becomes σ, so the future (2 nd principal part) and aorist (3 rd principal part) will normally display σ.

15 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

16 Shelmerdine Chapter The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs Recall the present infinitive active from Chapter 6.3 (λύειν, etc.). The infinitive mood is the third most often occurring mood in Greek (the indicative is the most frequent; participles [to be learned in Chapter 21] are second).

17 Shelmerdine Chapter The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs future infinitive –ending: – ειν –  λύσειν Use the future stem (2 nd principal part). Add the same – ειν ending as in the present tense.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 1 st (weak) aorist infinitive –ending: – αι –  λῦσαι Use the aorist stem (3 rd principal part). The augment marks the indicative mood only, so an infinitive never has an augment. The accent is fixed on the penult (e.g., διῶξαι ).

19 Shelmerdine Chapter The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 2 nd (strong) aorist infinitive –ending: – εῖν –  λαβεῖν Use the aorist stem (3 rd principal part). The augment marks the indicative mood only, so an infinitive never has an augment. Notice that the accent for this ending is fixed.

20 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

21 Shelmerdine Chapter Infinitive aspect Recall (Chapter 5.3) that the aorist tense refers to a single past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a snapshot in your head. Recall (Chapter 4.3) that the imperfect tense refers to ongoing or repeated past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a moving video in your head.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Infinitive aspect In the infinitive mood, aspect is more important than tense. A present infinitive refers to ongoing action. An aorist infinitive refers to a single action, regardless of the time the action takes place. The negative for an infinitive is always μή (not οὐ ).

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Infinitive aspect Present: ἐκέλευσα τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀεὶ διώκειν τὴν τιμήν. –“I ordered the men to keep pursuing honor always.” –ongoing action Aorist: ἐκέλευσα τοὺς ἄνδρας μὴ διῶξαι τὸν ἵππον. –“I ordered the men to pursue the horse.” –single action

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Infinitive aspect The future infinitive has limited use. Verbs that refer to events that will happen in the future can use it as a complementary infinitive, but English translation does not reflect this: – μέλλω θύσειν. –“I am about to sacrifice.” –οὐκ ἐλπίζω πείσειν αὐτόν. –“I do not expect to persuade him.”

25 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in –σ 2.Principal parts of dental stem verbs 3.The future and aorist active infinitives of thematic verbs 4.Infinitive aspect 5.The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive

26 Shelmerdine Chapter The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive The infinitive can serve as a neuter noun referring just to the action of the verb. For example: –χαλεπόν ἐστι τὸ διαβαίνειν τὸν ποταμόν. “To cross the river is dangerous.” “It is dangerous to cross the river.” “Crossing the river is dangerous.”

27 Shelmerdine Chapter The infinitive as verbal noun; the articular infinitive In this construction the negative is μή. For example: –καὶ χαλεπόν ἐστι τὸ μὴ διαβαίνειν τὸν ποταμόν. “Not crossing the river is also dangerous.”

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 Θεμιστοκλῆς

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἦν δέ ποτε ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος ὀνόματι Θεμιστοκλῆς· διὰ δὲ τὸ εἶναι χρήματα οὐκ ὀλίγα ἐν τῷ κοινῷ, οἱ μὲν ἤθελον ἕκαστον τῶν Ἀθηναίων λαβεῖν δέκα δραχμὰς. ὁ δὲ Θεμιστοκλῆς ἔπεισεν αὐτοὺς παρασκευάσαι διακοσίας τριήρεις εἰς τὸν πρὸς τοὺς Αἰγινήτας πόλεμον· καὶ οὕτως ἠνάγκασε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀριστεύειν κατὰ θάλατταν.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἦν δέ ποτε ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος ὀνόματι Θεμιστοκλῆς· διὰ δὲ τὸ εἶναι χρήματα οὐκ ὀλίγα ἐν τῷ κοινῷ, οἱ μὲν ἤθελον ἕκαστον τῶν Ἀθηναίων λαβεῖν δέκα δραχμὰς. ὁ δὲ Θεμιστοκλῆς ἔπεισεν αὐτοὺς παρασκευάσαι διακοσίας τριήρεις εἰς τὸν πρὸς τοὺς Αἰγινήτας πόλεμον· καὶ οὕτως ἠνάγκασε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀριστεύειν κατὰ θάλατταν.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἦν δέ ποτε ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος ὀνόματι Θεμιστοκλῆς· διὰ δὲ τὸ εἶναι χρήματα οὐκ ὀλίγα ἐν τῷ κοινῷ, οἱ μὲν ἤθελον ἕκαστον τῶν Ἀθηναίων λαβεῖν δέκα δραχμὰς. ὁ δὲ Θεμιστοκλῆς ἔπεισεν αὐτοὺς παρασκευάσαι διακοσίας τριήρεις εἰς τὸν πρὸς τοὺς Αἰγινήτας πόλεμον· καὶ οὕτως ἠνάγκασε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀριστεύειν κατὰ θάλατταν.

32 The Trireme

33

34 Ἀθῆναι Α ἴ γινα

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἐν δὲ τῷ πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας πολέμῳ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἔπεμψαν ἄνδρας εἰς Δελφούς, ὅτι ἐν μεγίστῳ κινδύνῳ ἦσαν. καὶ ἡ Πυθία, Εἰ μέλλετε σώσειν τὴν πατρίδα, ἔφη, πιστεύετε τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει. ὁ δὲ Θεμικστοκλῆς ὧδε συνεβούλευσε τοῖς πολίταις· Ὁ θεὸς τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει οὐ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν σημαίνει, ἀλλὰ τὸ ναυτικόν, καὶ κελεύει τοὺς πολίτας ταῖς τριήρεσι πιστεύειν. οἱ δὲ πλεῖστοι ἐπίστευσαν αὐτῷ, καὶ οὕτω ἔπεισε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους καὶ ἄλλο ναυτικὸν παρασκευάσαι. καὶ δὴ εἰ μὴ ἔσχον ναυτικὸν καλόν, οὐκ ἂν κατέλυσαν τοὺς Πέρσας.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἐν δὲ τῷ πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας πολέμῳ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἔπεμψαν ἄνδρας εἰς Δελφούς, ὅτι ἐν μεγίστῳ κινδύνῳ ἦσαν. καὶ ἡ Πυθία, Εἰ μέλλετε σώσειν τὴν πατρίδα, ἔφη, πιστεύετε τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει. ὁ δὲ Θεμικστοκλῆς ὧδε συνεβούλευσε τοῖς πολίταις· Ὁ θεὸς τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει οὐ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν σημαίνει, ἀλλὰ τὸ ναυτικόν, καὶ κελεύει τοὺς πολίτας ταῖς τριήρεσι πιστεύειν.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 οἱ δὲ πλεῖστοι ἐπίστευσαν αὐτῷ, καὶ οὕτω ἔπεισε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους καὶ ἄλλο ναυτικὸν παρασκευάσαι. καὶ δὴ εἰ μὴ ἔσχον ναυτικὸν καλόν, οὐκ ἂν κατέλυσαν τοὺς Πέρσας.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ἐν δὲ τῷ πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας πολέμῳ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἔπεμψαν ἄνδρας εἰς Δελφούς, ὅτι ἐν μεγίστῳ κινδύνῳ ἦσαν. καὶ ἡ Πυθία, Εἰ μέλλετε σώσειν τὴν πατρίδα, ἔφη, πιστεύετε τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει. ὁ δὲ Θεμικστοκλῆς ὧδε συνεβούλευσε τοῖς πολίταις· Ὁ θεὸς τῷ ξυλίνῳ τείχει οὐ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν σημαίνει, ἀλλὰ τὸ ναυτικόν, καὶ κελεύει τοὺς πολίτας ταῖς τριήρεσι πιστεύειν.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 οἱ δὲ πλεῖστοι ἐπίστευσαν αὐτῷ, καὶ οὕτω ἔπεισε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους καὶ ἄλλο ναυτικὸν παρασκευάσαι. καὶ δὴ εἰ μὴ ἔσχον ναυτικὸν καλόν, οὐκ ἂν κατέλυσαν τοὺς Πέρσας.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐν ταῖς Θερμοπύλαις μάχην, οἰ μὲν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐφύλαττον τὸν Ἰσθμὸν τείχει, οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐπόρευσαν τά τε τέκνα καὶ τοὺς οἰκέτας ἐκ τῆς Ἀττικῆς, τοὺς μὲν εἰς Τροιζῆνα, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Αἴγιναν, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Σαλαμῖνα, καὶ οὕτως ἔσωσαν αὐτούς. οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι εἰσέβαλον εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν καὶ κατέλαβον τὰς Ἀθήνας καὶ ἔκαυσαν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν, ἐν ᾗ ἦσαν οἱ ὀλίγοι οἳ οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν τῷ Θεμικστοκλεῖ.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐν ταῖς Θερμοπύλαις μάχην, οἰ μὲν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐφύλαττον τὸν Ἰσθμὸν τείχει, οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐπόρευσαν τά τε τέκνα καὶ τοὺς οἰκέτας ἐκ τῆς Ἀττικῆς, τοὺς μὲν εἰς Τροιζῆνα, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Αἴγιναν, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Σαλαμῖνα, καὶ οὕτως ἔσωσαν αὐτούς. οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι εἰσέβαλον εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν καὶ κατέλαβον τὰς Ἀθήνας καὶ ἔκαυσαν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν, ἐν ᾗ ἦσαν οἱ ὀλίγοι οἳ οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν τῷ Θεμικστοκλεῖ.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐν ταῖς Θερμοπύλαις μάχην, οἰ μὲν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐφύλαττον τὸν Ἰσθμὸν τείχει, οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐπόρευσαν τά τε τέκνα καὶ τοὺς οἰκέτας ἐκ τῆς Ἀττικῆς, τοὺς μὲν εἰς Τροιζῆνα, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Αἴγιναν, τοὺς δὲ εἰς Σαλαμῖνα, καὶ οὕτως ἔσωσαν αὐτούς. οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι εἰσέβαλον εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν καὶ κατέλαβον τὰς Ἀθήνας καὶ ἔκαυσαν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν, ἐν ᾗ ἦσαν οἱ ὀλίγοι οἳ οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν τῷ Θεμικστοκλεῖ.

43 Xerxes’ Persian invasion of 480 BC Τροιζήν Σαλαμίς Ἰσθμός

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας, τοὺς μικροὺς καὶ τοὺς μεγάλους, καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς, καὶ τοὺς ἐλευθέρους καὶ τοὺς δούλους, ἵνα δῶσιν αὐτοῖς χάραγμα ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς ἢ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῶν καὶ ἵνα μή τις δύνηται ἀγοράσαι ἢ πωλῆσαι εἰ μὴ ὁ ἔχων τὸ χάραγμα τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θηρίου ἢ τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ. ἀγοράω buy δεξιός -ά -όν right δῶσιν “they give“ δύναται (3 rd sg.) “can“ ἔχων, ἔχοντος ὁ “one who has” θηρίον –ου τό = θήρ, θηρός ὁ ἵνα so that μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγαν big μέτωοπον –ου τό forehead πάντας (masc. acc. pl.) all πλούσιος –α –ον wealthy ποιέω make πτωχός -ή -όν poor πωλέω sell τις (nom. sg.) anyone χάραγμα –ατος τό mark χείρ, χειρός τό “hand"

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 13 ὧδε ἡ σοφία ἐστίν. ὁ ἔχων νοῦν ψηφίσατο τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦ θηρίου, ἀριθμὸς γὰρ ἀνθρώπου ἐστίν, καὶ ὁ ἀριθμὸς αὐτοῦ ἑξακόσιοι ἐξήκοντα ἕξ. ἀριθμός –οῦ ὁ “number" ἔχων, ἔχοντος ὁ “one who has” θηρίον –ου τό = θήρ, θηρός ὁ νοῦς, νοῦ ὁ “mind, sense, understanding" ψηφίσατο (3 rd sg.) “reckons for oneself" ὧδε this way 666 = χξ ς’

46 see alternate “number of the beast” P.Oxy. LXVI = ΧΞ = χξ ς’ 616 = ΧΙ = χι ς’


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