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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Comprehensive list of Principal Parts of.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Comprehensive list of Principal Parts of."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Comprehensive list of Principal Parts of Verbs

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form. Verbs are alphabetized by their 1 st person, singular, present, indicative, active form, with a - μι or - ω ending, depending on the conjugation of the verb. The next “principal part” is the 1 st person, singular, future, indicative, active. The third “principal part,” and the final one for which you are responsible in this course, is the 1 st person, singular, aorist, indicative, active.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone Although advanced vocabulary lists and lexica give six principal parts for Greek verbs, you are responsible for only these first three. For most reading purposes at the beginning and intermediate levels, these three are sufficient. This Power Point collects and presents all the verbs and their principal parts. – The Classical Vocabulary collects together the principal parts from all the verbs on the Dickinson College Commentaries vocabulary list. – The New Testament Vocabulary collects together the principal parts of all the verbs which appear 30+ times in the NT. Verbs are grouped by stem type, to make their patterns clearer and facilitate memorization.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - υ ) ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι, ἤκουσα hear βουλεύω, βουλεύσω, ἐβούλευσα deliberate, resolve θύω, θύσω, ἔθυσα sacrifice κελεύω, κελεύσω, ἐκέλευσα order κωλύω, κωλύσω, ἐκώλυσα prevent λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα loosen, destroy παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα stop πιστεύω, πιστεύω, ἐπίστευσα trust, rely on, believe in πορεύω, πορεύσω, ἐπόρευσα carry; (mid.) go, march φύω, φύσω, ἔφυσα and ἔφυν produce

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - υ ) ἀκούω, ἀκούσω, ἤκουσα hear θεραπεύω, θεραπεύσω, ἐθεράπευσα heal, serve κλαίω, κλαύσω, ἔκλαυσα cry out λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα loosen, destroy – ἀπολύω release περισσεύω, περισσεύσω, ἐπερίσσευσα be left over, increase, exceed πιστεύω, πιστεύω, ἐπίστευσα trust, rely on, believe in

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - ε ) ἀδικέω, ἀδικήσω, ἠδίκησα commit injustice αἰτέω, αἰτήσω, ᾔτησα beg, ask βοηθέω, βοηθήσω, ἐβοήθησα help ἐθέλω, ἐθελήσω, ἐθέλησα want ζητέω, ζητήσω, ἐζήτησα seek ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην lead, consider καλέω, καλῶ, ἐκάλησα call κατηγορέω, κατηγορήσω, ἐκατηγόρησα accuse κινέω, κινήσω, ἐκίνησα move κρατέω, κρατήσω, ἐκράτησα rule over

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - ε ) λαλέω, λαλήσω, ἐλάλησα talk, babble μέλλω, μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα intend, be about to οἰκέω, οἰκήσω, ᾤκησα dwell ὁμολογέω, ὁμολήσω, ὡμολόγησα agree πλέω, πλεύσομαι and πλευσοῦμαι, ἔπλευσα sail ποιέω, ποιήσω, ἐποίησα do, make πολεμέω, πολεμήσω, ἐπολέμησα make war φοβέω, φοβήσω, ἐφόβησα frighten φρονέω, φρονήσω, ἐφρόνησα think

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - ε ) αἰτέω, αἰτήσω, ᾔτησα beg, ask ἀκολουθέω, ἀκολουθήσω, ἠκολούθησα follow ἀσθενέω, ἀσθενήσω, ἠσθένησα be sick, be weak βλασφημέω, βλασφημήσω, ἐβλασφήμησα blaspheme δέω, δήσω, ἔδησα bind διακονέω, διακονήσω, ἐδιακόνησα serve εὐλογέω, εὐλογήσω, εὐλόγησα bless, praise εὐχαριστέω, εὐχαριστήσω, ηὐ -(or εὐ -) χαρίστησα give thanks

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - ε ) ζητέω, ζητήσω, ἐζήτησα seek θέλω, θελήσω, ἠθέλησα want θεωρέω, θεωήσω, ἐθεώρησα watch, observe καλέω, καλῶ, ἐκάλησα call – παρακαλέω beg, encourage κατοικέω, κατοικήσω, κατῴκησα inhabit, settle κρατέω, κρατήσω, ἐκράτησα rule over λαλέω, λαλήσω, ἐλάλησα talk, babble μαρτυρέω, μαρτυρήσω, ἐμαρτύρησα witness μέλλω, μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα intend, be about to

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - ε ) μετανοέω, μετανοήσω, μετενόησα repent μισέω, μισήσω, ἐμίσησα hate οἰκοδομέω, οἰκδομήσω, ᾠκοδόμησα build περιπατέω, περιπατήσω, περιεπάτησα walk, live πλέω, πλεύσομαι and πλευσοῦμαι, ἔπλευσα sail ποιέω, ποιήσω, ἐποίησα do, make προσκυνέω, προσκυνήσω, προσεκύνησα worship τηρέω, τερήσω, ἐτήρησα guard φωνέω, φωνήσω, ἐφώνησα call out, summon

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - α ) δράω, δράσω, ἔδρασα do ἐάω, ἐάσω, εἴασα allow ἐρωτάω, ἐρωτήσω, ἠρώτησα ask ζάω, ζήσω, ἔζησα live νικάω, νικήσω, ἐνίκησα conquer, defeat ὁρμάω, ὁρμήσω, ὥρμησα urge, hurry πειράω, πειράσω, ἐπείρασα try, attempt τελευτάω, τελευτάσω, ἐτελεύτασα finish, die τιμάω, τιμήσω, ἐτίμησα honor τολμάω, τολμήσω, ἐτόλμησα dare χράομαι, χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην use

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - α ) ἀγαπάω, ἀγαπήσω, ἐγάπησα love γεννάω, γεννήσω, ἐγέννησα give birth to ἐρωτάω, ἐρωτήσω, ἠρώτησα ask – ἐπερωτάω ask for ζάω, ζήσω, ἔζησα live πλανάω, πλανήσω, ἐπλάνησα mislead

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - ο ) ἀξιόω, ἀξιώσω, ἠξίωσα consider worthy, valuable δηλόω, δηλώσω, ἐδήλωσα show

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - ο ) δηλόω, δηλώσω, ἐδήλωσα show δικαιόω, δικαιώσω, ἐδικαίωσα justify πληρόω, πληρώσω, ἐπλήρωσα fulfill σταυρόω, σταυρώσω, ἐσταύρωσα crucify φανερόω, φανερώσω, ἐφενέρωσα reveal

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in – π / β / φ ) βλέπω, βλέψομαι, ἔβλεψα see, look γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα write, draw πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send τρέπω, τρέψω, ἔτρεψα turn τρέφω, θρέψω, ἔθρεψα feed, support, educate

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in – π / β / φ ) ἅπτω, ἅψω, ἧψα touch βλέπω, βλέψω, ἔβλεψα see, look γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα write, draw ἐπιστρέφω, ἐπιστρέψω, ἐπέστραψα turn to, return πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send ὑποστρέφω, ὑποστρέψω, ὑπέστραψα turn back, return

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in – δ / ζ / θ ) θαυμάζω, θαυμάσω, ἐθαύμασα be amazed κατασκευάζω, κατασκευάσω, κατεσκεύασα equip, supply κομίζω, κομιῶ, ἐκόμισα provide for νομίζω, νομιῶ, ἐνόμισα ὀνομάζω, ὀνομάσω, ὠνόμασα call by name πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα persuade σῴζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα save φράζω, φράσω, ἔφρασα tell

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in – δ / ζ / θ ) βαπτίζω, βαπτίσω, ἐβάπτισα baptize δοξάζω, δοξάσω, ἐδόξασα glorify ἐγγίζω, ἐγγιῶ, ἤγγισα come near ἐλπίζω, ἐλπιῶ, ἤλπισα hope ἐτοιμάζω, ἐτοιμάσω, ἠτοίμασα prepare εὐαγγελίζω, ἐυαγγελιῶ, εὐηγγέλισα preach

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in – δ / ζ / θ ) θαυμάζω, θαυμάσω, ἐθαύμασα be amazed καθαρίζω, καθαριῶ, ἐκαθάρισα cleanse καθίζω, καθίσω, ἐκάθισα sit πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα persuade πειράζω, πειράσω, ἐπείρασα try, attempt σῴζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα save

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in - γ, - κ, - χ, and - ττ ) ἁπαλλάττω, ἁπαλλάξω, ἀπήλλαξα release, deliver ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα begin, lead, rule (+ gen.) – ὑπάρχω exist, be, belong to διδάσκω, διδάξω, ἐδίδαξα teach διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue δοκέω, δόξω, ἔδοξα seem λέγω, λέξω, ἔλεξα say, speak, report πράττω, πράξω, ἔπραξα do τάττω, τάξω, ἔταξα arrange φυλάττω, φυλάξω, ἐφύλαξα watch, guard, defend

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in - γ, - κ, - χ, and - σσ ) ἀνοίγω, ἀνοίξω, ἤνοιξα open ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα begin, lead, rule (+ gen.) – ὑπάρχω exist, be, belong to διδάσκω, διδάξω, ἐδίδαξα teach διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue δοκέω, δόξω, ἔδοξα seem κηρύσσω, κηρύξω, ἐκήρυξα proclaim κράζω, κράξω, ἔκραξα shout πράσσω, πράξω, ἔπραξα do ὑποτάσσω, ὑποτάξω, ὑπέταξα subordinate, subject φυλάσσω, φυλάξω, ἐφύλαξα watch, guard, defend

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (stems in – λ / ν / ρ ) ἀγγέλλω, ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα report, tell αἴρω, ἀρῶ, ἦρα raise ἀποκτείνω, ἀποκτενῶ, ἀπέκτεινα kill διαφθείρω, διαφθερῶ, διέφθειρα destroy κρίνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρινα judge, decide, determine – ἀποκρίνω separate; (mid.) answer, reply μένω, μενῶ, ἔμεινα remain, stay

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (stems in – λ / ν / ρ ) αἴρω, ἀρῶ, ἦρα raise ἀπαγγέλλω -αγγελῶ -ήγγειλα report, tell ἀποκτείνω, ἀποκτενῶ, ἀπέκτεινα kill ἀποστέλλω, ἀποστελῶ, ἀπέστειλα send away ἐγείρω, ἐγερῶ, εἴγειρα raise up κρίνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρινα judge, decide, determine μένω, μενῶ, ἔμεινα remain, stay παραγγέλλω -αγγελῶ -ήγγειλα command, order σπείρω, σπερῶ, ἔσπειρα sow

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY The next slides cover verbs that have a 2 nd (strong) aorist. The principal parts can look strange at first, but remember how this type of aorist is formed. All these verbs use their root as their aorist stem. The present and future principal parts have additions to the stem to indicate these tenses. In a sense, then, these verbs build in reverse direction from verbs with a 1 st (weak) aorist. Recognizing this pattern can help understand and remember these parts and stems.

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (2 nd aorists) ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι, ἥμαρτον miss, fail, make a mistake ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι, ἀπέθανον die – θνήσκω die βάλλω, βαλῶ, ἔβαλον throw, hit εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω, εὗρον find λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον take, grab; receive, get – καταλαμβάνω seize, catch up to, arrest – ὑπολαμβάνω take up, reply, suppose

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (2 nd aorists) λανθάνω, λήσω, ἔλαθον escape notice of; (mid.) forget λείπω, λείψω, ἔλιπον leave, abandon μανθάνω, μαθήσομαι, ἔμαθον learn πίνω, πίομαι, ἔπιον drink τέμνω, τεμῶ, ἔτεμον cut φεύγω, φεύξομαι, ἔφυγον flee, run away

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (2 nd aorists) ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι, ἥμαρτον sin ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι, ἀπέθανον die βάλλω, βαλῶ, ἔβαλον throw – ἐκβάλλω throw out εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω, εὗρον find λαμβάνω, λήμψομαι, ἔλαβον take, grab; receive, get – παραλαμβάνω take, accept πίνω, πίομαι, ἔπιον drink

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (2 nd aorist - μι verbs) ἁλίσκομαι, ἁλώσομαι, ἑάλων be captive βαίνω, βήσομαι, ἔβην walk, come, go – συμβαίνω happen, agree, result γιγνώσκω, γνώσομαι, ἔγνων know, learn, think

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (2 nd aorist - μι verbs) βαίνω, βήσομαι, ἔβην walk, come, go – ἀναβαίνω walk up, go aboard, enter – καταβαίνω go down, descend γινώσκω, γνώσομαι, ἔγνων know, learn, think – ἀναγινώσκω read – ἐπιγινώσκω know, understand

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary These verbs use their “passive” form as their regular intransitive aorist. ἀποκρίνομαι, ἀποκρινοῦμαι, ἀπεκρίθην answer βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι, ἐβουλήθην want, prefer δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι, ἐδυνήθην be able, can πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, ἐπορεύθην go, march φαίνω, φανῶ, ἐφάνην appear χαίρω, χαιρήσω, ἐχάρην be happy, say hello

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary These verbs use their “passive” form as their regular intransitive aorist. ἀποκρίνομαι, ἀποκρινοῦμαι, ἀπεκρίθην answer βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι, ἐβουλήθην want, prefer δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι, ἐδυνήθην be able, can πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, ἐπορεύθην go, march ἐκπορεύομαι journey out, rise φαίνω, φανῶ, ἐφάνην appear χαίρω, χαιρήσω, ἐχάρην be happy, say hello

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (- μι verbs) ἀπο + ολ-  ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ, ἀπώλεσα kill, destroy δεικ -  δείκνυμι, δείξω, ἔδειξα show μιγ -  μίγνυμι, μίξω, ἔμιξα mix δω -  δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα give – ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω, ἀπέδωκα give back – παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω, παρέδωκα hand over, deliver ἥ -  ἵημι, ἥσω, ἧκα throw – ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω, ἀφῆκα let go, allow, forgive

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (- μι verbs) στη -  ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα/ἔστην stand – καθίστημι, καταστήσω, κατέστησα/κατέστην set down, establish θη -  τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα put, make – προστίθημι, προσθήσω, προσέθηκα add to φη -  φημί, φήσω, ἔφησα say

34 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (- μι verbs) ἀπο + ολ-  ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ, ἀπώλεσα kill, destroy δω -  δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα give – ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω, ἀπέδωκα give back – παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω, παρέδωκα hand over, deliver ἥ -  ἵημι, ἥσω, ἧκα throw – ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω, ἀφῆκα let go, allow, forgive

35 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (- μι verbs) στη -  ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα/ἔστην stand – ἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω, ἀνέστησα/ἀνέἔστην raise, appoint – παρίστημι, παραστήσω, παρέστησα/παρέἔστην present θη -  τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα put, make – ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω, ἐπέθηκα put on φη -  φημί, φήσω, ἔφησα say

36 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form. In a handful of cases, the stems of Greek verbs in their present, future and aorist tenses differ beyond the basic patterns of sound change. These differences are of two types: – A stem goes through multiple and subtle changes. Some common English verbs have changes that have to be learned individually, too (e.g., “do”  “did”). – A verb mixes stems from different verbs. This is known as “suppletion.” This process occurs in English, too (e.g., “go”  “went”). The following slides present corresponding Greek verbs of these types under the label “mixed” stems.

37 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (mixed) ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον lead, bring, pass (time) αἱρέω, αἱρήσω, εἷλον (stem ἑλ -) take, grasp; (mid.) choose – ἀναιρέω raise up; kill, destroy – ἀφαιρέω take from, take away – ἁλ -  ἁλίσκομαι, ἁλώσομαι, ἑάλων be captive – See separate slide on these forms and their meanings. ἐλαύνω, ἐλῶ (- α contract), ἤλασα march ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι, ἦλθον (stem ἐλθ -) come, go

38 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (mixed) ἔχω, ἕξω and σχήσω, ἔσχον (stem σχ -) have, hold, be – Imperfect: εἶχον – See separate slide on these forms and their meanings. – παρέχω provide λέγω, ἐρῶ, εἶπον (stem ἐπ -) say, speak, report μιμνήσκω, μνήσω, ἔμνησα remind ὁράω, ὄψομαι, εἶδον (stem ἰδ -) see – Imperfect: ἑώραον  ἑώρων πάσχω, πείσομαι, ἔπαθον suffer, experience πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον fall

39 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (mixed) τίκτω, τέξομαι, ἔτεκον give birth τρέφω, θρέψω, ἔθρεψα feed, support, educate τυγχάνω, τεύξομαι, ἔτυχον happen (+participle ), meet (+gen) φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγχον (stem ἐνεγχ -) carry, bring – διαφέρω spread, differ – συμφέρω benefit, profit

40 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (mixed) ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον lead, bring, pass (time) – συνάγω gather together, assemble – ὑπάγω go away, depart ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι, ἦλθον (stem ἐλθ -) come, go – ἀπέρχομαι go away – διέρχομαι come, go through, cross – ἐξέρχομαι come, go out of ἐσθίω, φάγομαι, ἔφαγον eat ἔχω, ἕξω, ἔσχον (stem σχ -) have, hold, be – Imperfect: εἶχον – See separate slide on these forms and their meanings.

41 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (mixed) λέγω, ἐρῶ, εἶπον (stem ἐπ -) say, speak, report ὁράω, ὄψομαι, εἶδον (stem ἰδ -) see Imperfect: ἑώραον  ἑώρων πάσχω, πείσομαι, ἔπαθον suffer, experience πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον fall φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγχα (stem ἐνεγχ -) carry, bring προσφέρω offer, present

42 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary αἱρέω, αἱρήσω, εἷλον take, grasp; (mid.) choose – ἁλ -  ἁλίσκομαι, ἁλώσομαι, ἑάλων be captive – The above cluster is all related in meaning as follows: Active: αἱρέω, αἱρήσω, εἷλον means “take” “capture” etc. Middle: αἱρέομαι, etc., means “take for oneself”  “choose” Passive: ἁλίσκομαι, ἁλώσομαι, ἑάλων serves as the passive of αἱρέω  “be taken” “be captured” etc.

43 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: ἔχω, ἕξω and σχήσω, ἔσχον (stem σχ -) have, hold, be – Despite their final appearances, all these stems derive from one root, which is roughly - σεχ -. – Present: σεχ -  ἐχ - – Imperfect: ἐσεχ -  εἶχον – Future: σεχσ -  ἑξ - notice the rough breathing ( ἑ -) here. – Future: σεχ + σ -  σχησ - strictly speaking has “aorist aspect” and refers to “getting hold of” something as a single action in the future. – Aorist: ἐ + σεχ -  ἐσχ -

44 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (deponent) αἰσθάνομαι, αἰσθήσομαι, ᾐσθόμην perceive ἀφικνέομαι, ἀφίξομαι, ἀφικόμην come to, arrive at γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην happen, become, be born δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην welcome ἕπομαι, ἕψομαι, ἑσπόμην follow ἐργάζομαι, ἐργάσομαι, ἠργασάμην work ἐρωτάω, ἐρήσομαι, ἠρόμην ask

45 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (deponent) ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην lead, consider κτάομαι, κτήσομαι, ἐκτησάμην get, acquire μάχομαι, μαχοῦμαι, ἡμαχεσάμην fight πυνθάνομαι, πεύσομαι, ἐπυθόμην learn, hear, inquire σκέπτομαι / σκοπέω, σκέψομαι ἐσκεψάμην look at, examine χράομαι, χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην use

46 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (deponent) ἀποκρίνομαι, - κρινοῦμαι, - εκρινάμην answer, reply ἀρνέομαι, ἀρνήσομαι, ἀρνησάμην deny γίνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην happen, become, be born – παραγίνομαι come to, appear δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην welcome ἐργάζομαι, ἐργάσομαι, ἠργασάμην work καυχάομαι, καυχήσομαι, ἐκαυχησάμην boast προσεύχομαι, προσεύξομαι, προσηυξάμην pray

47 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (defective) -----, βιώσομαι, ἐβίων live δεῖ it is necessary δέδοικα / δέδια fear διαφέρει it makes a difference δοκεῖ it seems (best) to (+ dat.) εἰμί, ἔσομαι be, exist – πάρειμι be present ἔοικα resemble, seem -----, ἐρήσομαι, ἠρόμην ask

48 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary (defective) ἥκω, ἥξω κεῖμαι lie (= perf. pass. of τίθημι ) οἶδα know οἴομαι, οἶμαι parenthetical “I think” πάρεστι it depends on (+ dat.) συμφέρει it is useful χρή it is necessary

49 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary (defective) ἀσπάζομαι, -----, ἠσπασάμην greet εἰμί, ἔσομαι be, exist -----, ἐρήσομαι, ἠρόμην ask κάθημαι sit λογίζομαι, -----, ἐλογισάμην calculate οἶδα know ὀφείλω owe


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