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‘Being Roman Cypriot’: The Ummidii of Paphos Ersin Hussein: The University of Warwick: Department of Classics and Ancient History.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "‘Being Roman Cypriot’: The Ummidii of Paphos Ersin Hussein: The University of Warwick: Department of Classics and Ancient History."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 ‘Being Roman Cypriot’: The Ummidii of Paphos Ersin Hussein: The University of Warwick: Department of Classics and Ancient History Supervisor: Dr Alison Cooley ‘Being Roman Cypriot’: The Ummidii of Paphos Ersin Hussein: The University of Warwick: Department of Classics and Ancient History Supervisor: Dr Alison Cooley Introduction: The history of Roman Cyprus has traditionally been considered ‘obscure’ and ‘uniform’. This thesis proposes to re-evaluate the history of Roman Cyprus through a study of the representation and expression of identities in the island’s epigraphic record. It will be argued that while Cyprus has long been considered a provincial backwater, it is an important and unique case study for considering the themes of power, identity, and life in the Roman provinces in general. This case study focuses on a family of local elites from Paphos who were granted the Roman civitas by the proconsul of c. AD 18, C. Ummidius Durmius Quadratus, and is part of a larger investigation into the representation of Cypriots enfranchised by Rome attested in the epigraphy of the civic and sacred contexts of Roman Cyprus. Roman Civitas in Cyprus: Cyprus was annexed from the Ptolemaic Empire in 58 BC by Rome, only to be restored to the Ptolemies in 48/7 BC by Julius Caesar. Rome’s control of Cyprus was fully realized with the fall of Alexandria in 30 BC to Octavian. From this time, Cyprus and its inhabitants shared the fate of Egypt under Rome. They were treated as enemies surrendered at discretion, dediticii, which perhaps explains the notable lack of colonies, free cities, and cases of its inhabitants being granted civitas in this minor Roman province. Key Questions How are the members of this newly enfranchised family represented by these monuments? What aspects of ‘being Roman’ are drawn upon and emphasised? How intensified is their expression of Roman, Cypriot or local identity in these inscriptions and how would the texts of the inscriptions complement the accompanying statues or monuments? Does the context in which these monuments were set up impact on the types of identity expressed? What can these monuments reveal about the familial relationships of the Ummidii? Conclusions These monuments present a fascinating mixture of evolving identities that are not limited to strictly being ‘Roman’, ‘Cypriot’, or ‘local’. The Ummidii were united by marriage to another local family granted civitas, the Claudii of Paphos. Both families dominated the Paphian religious scene and these monuments emphasise their local prestige as priests and priestesses of long established Cypriot cults. The context of four of these monuments situated in the Sanctuary of Paphian Aphrodite intensifies the local identity of both families. The names Pantauchos, Appharion, Rhodokles and Teukros reflect Cyprus’ character as an island of mixed settlement as they are Macedonian, Samian, Attic and Rhodian in flavour. A re-configuration of the stemma of this family reveals that C. Ummidius Quadratus was married to both Claudia Rhodokleia and Claudia Appharion and that these two women were not the same person, contra Terence Bruce Mitford. It is uncertain, however, how many generations of this family are represented by these monuments. Key Bibliography Cayla, J. B. (2004) ‘Livie, Aphrodite et une Famille de Prêtres du Culte Impérial à Paphos’ in S. Follet (ed.) (2004) L’Hellénisme d’Époque Romaine, Paris: Corsten, T. (2010) ‘Names in –ΙΑΝΟΣ in Asia Minor a Preliminary Study’ in R. W. V. Catling and F. Marchand, (eds.) (2010) Onomatologos. Studies in Greek Personal Names Presented to Elaine Matthews, Oxbow Books: Mitford, T. B. (1980) ‘Roman Civitas in Salamis’ in Salamine De Chypre Histoire et Archéologie, état de recherché, Paris: Syme, R. (1968) ‘The Ummidii’ in Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 17, No. 1: Claudia Appharion honours her grandson Caius Ummidius Teretina Quadratus (also known as Pantauchianos) Ἀφροδίτῃ Παφίᾳ Γάιον Οὐμμίδιον Τηρητίνᾳ Κουαδρᾶτον, τὸν ἀρχιερέα τὸν καὶ Πανταυχιανὸν Γαίου 5 Τηρητίνᾳ Οὐμμιδίου Πανταύχο[υ] υἱὸν, τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ γυμνασιαρ- χήσαντος, Κλαυδία Ἀπφάριον, Τεύκρου θυγάτηρ, ἡ ἀρχιέρ(ε)ια τῶν 10 κατὰ Κύπρον Δήμητρος ἱερῶν, τὸν ἑαυτῇς υἱωνὸν εὐνοίας χάριν, ἔτους ηʹ. References: IGRR III 950; CIG 2637; LBW Monument type: Statue base. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos. Date: The eighth year of Vespasian? Measurements: Not given. Claudia Appharion honours her grandson Caius Ummidius Teretina Quadratus (also known as Pantauchianos) Ἀφροδίτῃ Παφίᾳ Γάιον Οὐμμίδιον Τηρητίνᾳ Κουαδρᾶτον, τὸν ἀρχιερέα τὸν καὶ Πανταυχιανὸν Γαίου 5 Τηρητίνᾳ Οὐμμιδίου Πανταύχο[υ] υἱὸν, τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ γυμνασιαρ- χήσαντος, Κλαυδία Ἀπφάριον, Τεύκρου θυγάτηρ, ἡ ἀρχιέρ(ε)ια τῶν 10 κατὰ Κύπρον Δήμητρος ἱερῶν, τὸν ἑαυτῇς υἱωνὸν εὐνοίας χάριν, ἔτους ηʹ. References: IGRR III 950; CIG 2637; LBW Monument type: Statue base. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos. Date: The eighth year of Vespasian? Measurements: Not given. Caius Ummidius Quadratus and Claudia Rhodoklea honour Caius Ummidius Pantauchos Quadratianus Ἀφροδίτῃ Παφίᾳ Γάιον Οὐμμίδιον Πάνταυ- χον Κουαδρατιανὸν ἀρχιε- ρέα Γάιος Οὐμμίδιος Κουαδρᾶτος 5 καὶ Κλαυδία Ῥοδοκλέα ἀρχιέρεια τὸν υἱόν. References: JHS 9 (1888) 237, 41; IGRR III 951. Monument type: A ‘badly cut’ blue pedestal. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos. Date: Uncertain. Measurements: Not given. Caius Ummidius Quadratus and Claudia Rhodoklea honour Caius Ummidius Pantauchos Quadratianus Ἀφροδίτῃ Παφίᾳ Γάιον Οὐμμίδιον Πάνταυ- χον Κουαδρατιανὸν ἀρχιε- ρέα Γάιος Οὐμμίδιος Κουαδρᾶτος 5 καὶ Κλαυδία Ῥοδοκλέα ἀρχιέρεια τὸν υἱόν. References: JHS 9 (1888) 237, 41; IGRR III 951. Monument type: A ‘badly cut’ blue pedestal. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos. Date: Uncertain. Measurements: Not given. Claudia Appharion honours her son Caius Ummidius Pantauchos Quadratianus [Γαίον Οὐ]μμίδιον Πάνταυχον [Κουα]- [δρατιον]όν, τὸν γυμνασιαρχή[σαντα] [δράκ]τοις καὶ λουτῆρσι Νερ[ωνείοις] [ἐκ τοῦ ἰ]δίου μέχρι νυκτος, [τὸν διὰ] 5 [βίου ἀρ]χιερέα, τὸν ἰερέα τοῦ κώ[μου], [Κλαυδ]ία Ἀπφά[ριον Τ]εύκρου θυ[γάτηρ], [τὸν ἑ]αυτῆς υἱόν μνήμης [χάριν] References: RDAC (1970), 154, 10; Mitford (1980), 282, n. 46; SEG Monument type: Fragmentary statue base of grey local marble. Location: Found at Kato Paphos. Date: Neronian. Measurements: 0.35h., w., th. Claudia Appharion honours her son Caius Ummidius Pantauchos Quadratianus [Γαίον Οὐ]μμίδιον Πάνταυχον [Κουα]- [δρατιον]όν, τὸν γυμνασιαρχή[σαντα] [δράκ]τοις καὶ λουτῆρσι Νερ[ωνείοις] [ἐκ τοῦ ἰ]δίου μέχρι νυκτος, [τὸν διὰ] 5 [βίου ἀρ]χιερέα, τὸν ἰερέα τοῦ κώ[μου], [Κλαυδ]ία Ἀπφά[ριον Τ]εύκρου θυ[γάτηρ], [τὸν ἑ]αυτῆς υἱόν μνήμης [χάριν] References: RDAC (1970), 154, 10; Mitford (1980), 282, n. 46; SEG Monument type: Fragmentary statue base of grey local marble. Location: Found at Kato Paphos. Date: Neronian. Measurements: 0.35h., w., th. Tiberius Claudius Teukros, son of Tiberius Claudius Rhodokles, is honoured [τὸν ἀρχιερέ]α v Ἀφροδ[ίτης] [Τιβέριον Κλ]αύδιον Τε[ῠκρον], [Τιβερίου ? Κλαυ]δίου Ῥοδοκ[λέους] [υἱόν,.... ]ου ? ὑῳνό[ν.. ] References: Mitford (1980), 282, no. 43; SEG Monument type: Red marble altar. Location: Palaipaphos. Date: Middle of the first century AD? Measurements: Not given. Tiberius Claudius Teukros, son of Tiberius Claudius Rhodokles, is honoured [τὸν ἀρχιερέ]α v Ἀφροδ[ίτης] [Τιβέριον Κλ]αύδιον Τε[ῠκρον], [Τιβερίου ? Κλαυ]δίου Ῥοδοκ[λέους] [υἱόν,.... ]ου ? ὑῳνό[ν.. ] References: Mitford (1980), 282, no. 43; SEG Monument type: Red marble altar. Location: Palaipaphos. Date: Middle of the first century AD? Measurements: Not given. The Koinon of Cyprus honour Rhodokles, son of Rhodokles Ἀφροδίτηι Παφίαι· Κυπρίων τὸ κοινὸν Ῥοδοκλέα Ῥοδοκλέους τὸν καὶ Στασικράτην, ἀρχιερασάμενον νησιωτικῶς τοῦ θεοῦ Σεβαστοῦ Καίσαρος, τὸν αὐθαίρετον ἀγωνοθέτην τῶν 5 ἀχθέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ Κυπρίων πρώτως ἐν Σεβαστῆι Πάφωι νησιωτικῶν ἱερῶν ἀγώνων πενταετηρικῶν Καισαρογερμανικείων, ἀρετῆς χάριν. References: SEG ; RDAC (1964), 211, 23b; AnnEp. (1966), 487. Monument type: Statue base of slate-coloured marble. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos, found near Mandria. Date: AD 18/19. Measurements: 0.92 long, 0.80 wide, 0.26 high. The Koinon of Cyprus honour Rhodokles, son of Rhodokles Ἀφροδίτηι Παφίαι· Κυπρίων τὸ κοινὸν Ῥοδοκλέα Ῥοδοκλέους τὸν καὶ Στασικράτην, ἀρχιερασάμενον νησιωτικῶς τοῦ θεοῦ Σεβαστοῦ Καίσαρος, τὸν αὐθαίρετον ἀγωνοθέτην τῶν 5 ἀχθέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ Κυπρίων πρώτως ἐν Σεβαστῆι Πάφωι νησιωτικῶν ἱερῶν ἀγώνων πενταετηρικῶν Καισαρογερμανικείων, ἀρετῆς χάριν. References: SEG ; RDAC (1964), 211, 23b; AnnEp. (1966), 487. Monument type: Statue base of slate-coloured marble. Location: The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos, found near Mandria. Date: AD 18/19. Measurements: 0.92 long, 0.80 wide, 0.26 high. Key Roman duo/tria nomina Greek cognomen Religious and civic appointments held Denoting the date of the inscription Denoting the setting of the monument Key Roman duo/tria nomina Greek cognomen Religious and civic appointments held Denoting the date of the inscription Denoting the setting of the monument


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