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Biodiversity and Conservation

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Biodiversity and Conservation"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Biodiversity and Conservation
Greece as a case study

2 BIODIVERSITY Genetic .. Species level System level Landscape level
All variety of life Species level and system level (biomes, habitats)

3 Biodiversity in the Mediterranean species level

4 Biodiversity hotspots
2,3% of surface, 50% plant species, 42% of vertebrate (non-fish species) [+ Μαπούτο, Κέρας Αφρικής, όρη Κ. Ασίας, Ιράν, Ιαπωνία] Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J 2000 Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858 Conservation International

5 Criteria and other grouping
Hotspots (priority): areas with more than 1500 plant species or >0,5% of the total plant species on Earth, having lost at least 70% of their initial vegetation and facing serious threats (Myers) BirdLife International, 218 “Endemic Bird Areas” (EBAs), each with 2 or more species found nowhere else World Wildlife Fund-U.S “Global 200 Ecoregions” (from 14 terrestrial biomes, 3 freshwater and 4 marine). Selection on the basis of species richness, endemism, taxonomic singleness, rare evolutionary or ecological phenomena, global rarity Megadiverse countries

6 Megadiverse countries
Australiaα Congo Madagascar S. Africa China India Indonesia Malaysia Papua, New Guinea Philippines Brazil Colombia Ecuador Mexico Peru USA Venezuela 17 First, analysis of primates (4 countries, Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, Congo have 2/3 of all species), then of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibia, plants and selected insects In these 17 countries, >2/3 of all forms of life are represented. Also, they contain most tropical forests, coral reefs and other priority systems. For instance, Australia has species (84% of plant, 83% of mammal, 45% of bird species are endemic in the continent (Mittermeier R.A Megadiversity: Earth's Biologically Richest Nations. CEMEX - Agrupacion Sierra Madre, Mexico)

7 How many species are there on Earth?
How are they distributed on the planet?

8 Species Number All species Identified <2.000.000 Estimated
Taxa Species Number Earth Grece ( km2) Higher plants 5.7003 (913 endemic4) Mammals 5.4161 1155 (2 endemic) Birds 9.7991 4425 (240 breeding) Reptiles 8.1631 645 (7 endemic) Amphibia 6.1602 225 Fish Marine 4765 Freshwater 1545 (47 endemic) Invertebrates ~ (~4000 endemic) All species Identified < Estimated 5-100 x 106 1IUCN (2007), 2Amphibiaweb (http://amphibiaweb.org) (2007), 3Strid & Tan (1997), 4Tan K, Iatrou G. 2001, 5Λεγάκις & Μαραγκού 2010, 2Amphibiaweb 6(http://earthtrends.wri.org)

9 How big are the losses / threats?

10 Lost and endangered Vertebrates Invertebrates Plants
No. Threatened % of described % of evaluated Vertebrates Known losses in modern era : 844 species Invertebrates Plants UNEP, State of the Environment and policy retrospective BirdLife International IUCN 2005 Red list of Threatened species TOTAL *in critical state, endangered, vulnerable

11 Which is the driving force?

12 Habitat loss Urbanization and agriculture
Reduction, segmentation, degradation Climate change

13 Extinctions ‘Fossils talk’ ? Families Time
Greatest mass extinction at the end of Permian – before 245 my 80% of genera disappeared – 95% of marine Most known, at the end of Cretaceous – before 65 myν Dinosaurs disappeared, mammals started to evolve, man appeared ? Families Time Sepkoski JJ, Jr 1993 Ten Years in the Library: New Data Confirm Paleontological Patterns. Paleobiology 19: (τροποποιημένο)

14 European answer Natura 2000 Network ~ 20% of EU under protection
Habitats Directive Birds Directive

15 big challenge Halt biodiversity loss within EU till 2010*
Contribute to considerable reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss globally till 2010 [*2006: 2010 and thereafter 1992, Rio, Earth Summit, Convention on Biological Diversity 1993, Ratification of the Convention by the ΕU 2001, Agreement of heads of EU member-states

16 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
The objectives of the CBD are the conservation of biological diversity the sustainable use of its components the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from commercial and other utilization of genetic resources The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources

17 Biodiversity and Conservation in Greece

18 Biodiversity Management of Protected Areas National Committee «Natura 2000» Directive 92/43 and its implementation

19 Species Number Are they equal; Of same concern? Taxa Species Number
Earth Grece ( km2) Higher plants 5.7003 (913 endemic4) Mammals 5.4161 1155 (2 endemic) Birds 9.7991 4425 (240 breeding) Reptiles 8.1631 645 (7 endemic) Amphibia 6.1602 225 Fish Marine 4765 Freshwater 1545 (47 endemic) Invertebrates ~ (~4000 endemic) Are they equal; Of same concern? 1IUCN (2007), 2Amphibiaweb (http://amphibiaweb.org) (2007), 3Strid & Tan (1997), 4Tan K, Iatrou G. 2001, 5Λεγάκις & Μαραγκού 2010, 2Amphibiaweb 6(http://earthtrends.wri.org)

20 Species of Greece criticaly endangered
in a lake, a torrent, a spring, a delta, an island, a peninsula, a mountain…

21 Recent publications ANIMALS PLANTS
Λεγάκις Α., Μαραγκού Π. (Επιμ. Έκδ) Το Κόκκινο Βιβλίο των Απειλούμενων Ζώων της Ελλάδας. Ελληνική Ζωολογική Εταιρεία, Αθήνα 524 vertebrate species evaluated (out of 1273): 15% endangered (11 amphibia species, 17 reptiles, 61 mammals, 45 freshwater fish 591 invertebrate specis: >50% endangered PLANTS Φοίτος, Δ., Κωνσταντινίδης, Θ. & Καμάρη, Γ. (Επιμ. Έκδ.) Βιβλίο Ερυθρών Δεδομένων των Σπάνιων και Απειλούμενων Φυτών της Ελλάδας, Τόμος 1 (A-D), Τόμος 2 (E-Z), Ελληνική Βοτανική Εταιρεία, Πάτρα. Phitos D, Strid A, Snogerup S, Greuter W The Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. WWF, Athens. 460 species endangered (10% of flora evaluated)

22 ENDEMIC SPECIES OF GREECE
Mammals mouse (Acomys minous) shrew (Crocidura zimmermanii) Amphibia frog (Rana epirotica) salamander (Mertensiella luscani) Reptiles viper (Vipera svaizzeri) turtle (Testudo marginata) lizard (Lacerta graeca) lizard(Podarcis milensis) Lizard (Podarcis peloponnesiaca) Lizard (Algiroides moreoticus) Skink* (Ophiomorus punctatissimus) *lizards with small legs or no limbs at all

23 Plants of Mediterranean Islands
IUCN

24

25 Challenges for the Future
«…The deep-rooted Mediterranean mindset that “culture” is mainly a humanistic affair and that “nature” is somehow different and, or course, second in importance to culture has resulted in far too little attention being paid in the past to environmental quality, ecosystem ‘health’, biodiversity maintenance, and sustainable supply of natural ecosystem services…»

26 EUROPEAN LEGISLATION 1. Directive 79/409/ΕC «on the conservation of wild birds» (ΚΥΑ /1985) 2. Directive 92/43/EC « on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora» (ΚΥΑ 33318/3028, ΦΕΚ Β’ 1289, 1998) Special Protection Areas (SPA) Sites of Community Importance (SCI) SPA and SCI contain habitat types (and species) Habitat types: Terrestrial or aquatic areas distinguished by geographic, abiotic and biotic features, whether entirely natural or semi-natural [the biotic traits are primarily vegetation types of dominant plant species; e.g. Eastern Mediterranean screes, Marine caves, Mediterranean pinewoods with endemic Mediterranean pine species, Phrygana of Sarcopoterium spinosum…]

27 Natura 2000 Network The aim of the directive is o contribute towards ensuring biodiversity through the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora in the European territory of the Member States, taking measures designed to maintain or restore them at favourable conservation status taking into account economic social and cultural requirements and regional and local characteristics. Natural habitat types of community interest are those which (i) are in danger of disappearance in their natural range or (ii) have a small natural range following their regression or by reason of their intrinsically restricted area, or (iii) present outstanding examples of typical characteristics of one or more of the nine following biogeographical regions: Alpine, Atlantic, Black Sea, Boreal, Continental, Macaronesian, Mediterranean, Pannonian and Steppic. Priority natural habitat types are the natural habitat types of community interest in danger of disappearance, which are present on the territory of EU and for the conservation of which the Community has particular responsibility in view of the proportion of their natural range which falls within its territory; they are indicated by an asterisk (*) in Annex I; (π.χ. Coastal lagoons, Palm forests with Phoenix)

28 Natura 2000 Network Species of community interest are those within the territory of EU that are endangered (except those with marginal range in that territory or which are not endangered or vulnerable in the western palearctic region) or vulnerable (believe to move into the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue operating) or rare (with small populations that are not at risk) or endemic (and requiring particular attention by reason of the specific nature of their habitat and/or the potential impact of their exploitation on their habitat and/or their conservation status; they may be listed in Annex II and/or Annex IV or V) Priority species: Species of community interest for the conservation of which the Community has particular responsibility in view of the proportion of their natural range which falls within its territory; they are indicated by an asterisk (*) in Annex II (e.g. Ursos arctos, Lynx lynx, Silene orphanides Boiss., Nepeta dirphys (Boiss.) Heldr. ex Halacsy)

29 Natura 2000 Network 202 Special Protection Areas (SPA)
Official final list of Greek SCI (2006) L259, 49, 21/9/06 202 Special Protection Areas (SPA) 241 Sites of Community Interest (SCI) They occupy a total area of ha 27,3% of Greek territory 6,1% of Greek waters ~100 scientists LIFE ( ), initial list

30 Protected Areas in Greece
Until 1995: 3% of the surface of the country (65) Until 2000: 17% of the surface of the country (270) 2010: 33% of the surface of the country (419)

31 8372 Municipalities within the network (population >14.000.000)
Natura 2000 France 371 SPA 1334 SCI Occupy ha 12,4% of French territory 8372 Municipalities within the network (population > )

32 Habitats of community interest
Natural habitats Coastal and alophytic Coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Freshwater Temperate heath and scrub Sclerophyllous scrub (matorral) Natural and Semi-natural grassland formations Raised bogs and mires and fens Rocky and caves Forests Greece hosts 85 habitat types of community interest Total number of habitat types of Directive 92/43: [250] Greece hosts 292 plant and animal species (birds non-included) of community interest

33 Natura 2000 Network in 6 years Special Protection Areas (SPA)
Network areas Special Protection Areas (SPA) After the adoption of the list of Sites of Community Interest (SCI) Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) Member states should designate these areas as SAC, the latest, after 6 years Real management of SACs should have started in 6 years

34 Natura 2000 Network Achieve favourable conservation status
for natural habitats and species

35 CONSERVATION STATUS The conservation status of a natural habitat is ‘favourable’ when: — its natural range and areas it covers within that range are stable or increasing, and — the specific structure and functions which are necessary for its long-term maintenance exist and are likely to continue to exist for the foreseeable future, — the conservation status of its typical species is favourable

36 CONSERVATION STATUS The conservation status of a species will be taken as ‘favourable’ when: — population dynamics data on the species concerned indicate that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats, and — the natural range of the species is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, — there is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis

37 Implementation of 92/43 Directive
2nd Report 2007 Implementation of 92/43 Directive Experts' Opinion 30% of habitats in non-satisfactory conservation status 80% of marine habitats in non-satisfactory status For 65% of terrestrial species and 62% of all species of Community Interest, the conservation status is unknown For all arthropods, the conservation status is unknown Even for mammals, the conservation status is unknown for more than 70%

38 Law 1650/1986 «For the protection of the environment»
PROTECTED AREAS National legislation Law 1650/1986 «For the protection of the environment» Article 18: Types (5) or protected areas Strict Nature Reserves Nature Reserves National Parks Protected natural formations Protected Landscapes and landscape unites Ecodevelopment areas Περιοχές προστασίας οικοτόπων και ειδών

39 Management Α) Management Authority of a specific protected area
Β) Management Authority of protected areas of a geographic or administrative entity C) Entrusting management to (i) existing service of the public sector Public service (ii) non-profit organizations of the private sector (e.g. environmental NGOs) Management contracts

40 28 Management Authorities / 28 areas
(Εθνικά Πάρκα, Εθνικά Θαλάσσια Πάρκα, Περιοχή Προστασίας της Φύσης, 4 Περιοχές Οικοανάπτυξης) Οριοθετημένες Προστατευόμενες Περιοχές 1. Εθνικού Θαλάσσιου Πάρκου Ζακύνθου (Πρώτος) 2. Εθνικού Πάρκου Σχοινιά-Μαραθώνα (Δεύτερος) 3. Περιοχής Οικοανάπτυξης Λίμνης Παμβώτιδας Ιωαννίνων 4. Εθνικού Θαλάσσιου Πάρκου Αλονήσου-Β. Σποράδων 5. Eθνικού Πάρκου Λιμνών Κορώνειας-Βόλβης 6. Εθνικού Πάρκου Β. Πινδου (Εθνικών Δρυμών Βίκου-Αώου και Πίνδου) 7. Περιοχής Οικοανάπτυξης Κάρλας-Μαυροβουνίου-Κεφαλόβρυσου Βελεστίνου 8. Περιοχής Οικοανάπτυξης Όρους Πάρνωνα και Υγροτόπου Μουστού 9. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δάσους Δαδιάς-Λευκίμμης-Σουφλίου 10. Εθνικού Πάρκου Λιμνοθάλασσας Μεσολογγίου 11. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δέλτα Αξιού-Λουδία-Αλιάκμονα 12. Εθνικού Πάρκου Υγρότοπου Κερκίνης 13. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δέλτα Έβρου 14. Εθνικού Πάρκου Υγροτόπων Κοτυχίου, Στροφυλιάς 15. Εθνικού Πάρκου Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης (Δέλτα Νέστου-Βιστωνίδας-Ισμαρίδας) 16. Εθνικό Πάρκο Υγροτόπων Αμβρακικού 17. Εθνικό Πάρκο Δρυμού Πρεσπών 18. Περιοχής Οικοανάπτυξης Ολύμπου Καρπάθου – Σαρίας 19. Εθνικού Πάρκου Χελμού-Βουραϊκού 20. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμού Αίνου 21. Περιοχή Προστασίας της Φύσης Στενών και Εκβολών των ποταμών Αχέροντα και Καλαμά* 22. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμού Οίτης 23. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμού Παρνασσού 24. Εθνικό Πάρκο Οροσειράς Ροδόπης 25. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμού Ολύμπου 26. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμών Σαμαριάς και Λευκών Ορέων 27. Εθνικού Πάρκου Δρυμού Πάρνηθας 28. Εθνικού Πάρκου Τζουμέρκων, Περιστερίου και χαράδρας Αράχθου (Τελευταίος)

41 Only 30% under the jurisdiction of Management Authorities

42 Natura 2000 National Committee
(Ν. 2742, ΚΥΑ 33318/3028/1998) Natura 2000 National Committee Responsible for the implementation of the 92/43/EU Directive Functions also as National Committee of Protected Areas

43 Natura 2000 Committee Experts in Ecology Botany Zoology Marine Biology
Forestry Soil Science Administrative and Environmental Law

44 Natura 2000 Committee + representatives of 6 Ministries, 4 NGOs
29 members Ministries Environment, Energy and Climate Change Economy and Marine Affairs Agriculture Internal Affairs Culture and Tourism Civil Protection

45 Natura 2000 Committee Priorities of action first year

46 REPORTS Every six years Member States shall draw up a report on the implementation of the measures taken under this Directive. This report shall include in particular information concerning the conservation measures as well as evaluation of the impact of those measures on the conservation status of the natural habitat types of Annex I and the species in Annex II The report, in accordance with the format established by the committee, shall be forwarded to the Commission and made accessible to the public. Next in 2013 with field data, no experts’ opinion [2001, 2007]

47 Designation of SACs Set conservation objectives Define priorities
2012 Set conservation objectives Define priorities Apply measures

48 Management 70% of the remaining protected areas

49 Priorities for the first year
Natura 2000 Committee Priorities for the first year Monitoring of species and natural habitats Evaluation of their conservation status Management of protected areas

50 Consultation regarding the biodiversity target
  to The objective of this consultation is to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders on possible policy options for the European Union's post-2010 EU biodiversity strategy, which will be assessed by the Commission as part of the process of its development

51 Statements The EU's 2010 biodiversity target was not reached because... Measures taken were not sufficiently ambitious. (compulsory) Measures taken did not address the main drivers of biodiversity loss. (compulsory) The relevant legislation (Birds and Habitats Directives, Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, etc.) has not been sufficiently implemented. (compulsory) answer The level of funding directed towards this end was not adequate. (compulsory) The target itself was unrealistic. (compulsory) 2. Biodiversity in the EU continues to be lost because…

52 Despoina Vokou Professor, Department of Ecology Tel , Structure of the Class Students from how many and which countries? Students of what?

53 INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORK Questionnaire 5 students fill in the questionnaire, one from each country Information for the Natura 2000 Network in the countries of the participating students a) How many SPA? b) How many SCI? c) Surface of the country? d) Surface of SCI and SPA in ha and %? e) Reference/preferably Website? f) Who is responsible for the management of protected areas? g) Is there a relevant body in your country like the Natura 2000 Committee of Greece?


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