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10 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis. Today’s Attractions  “ ὄ φελον ψυχρ ὸ ς ἦ ς ἢ ζεστ ό ς. Ο ὕ τως ὅ τι χλιαρ ὸ ς ε ἶ, κα ὶ ο ὔ τε ζεστ ὸ ς.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "10 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis. Today’s Attractions  “ ὄ φελον ψυχρ ὸ ς ἦ ς ἢ ζεστ ό ς. Ο ὕ τως ὅ τι χλιαρ ὸ ς ε ἶ, κα ὶ ο ὔ τε ζεστ ὸ ς."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 10 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis

2 Today’s Attractions  “ ὄ φελον ψυχρ ὸ ς ἦ ς ἢ ζεστ ό ς. Ο ὕ τως ὅ τι χλιαρ ὸ ς ε ἶ, κα ὶ ο ὔ τε ζεστ ὸ ς ο ὔ τε ψυχρ ό ς, μ έ λλω σε ἐ μ έ σαι ἐ κ το ῦ στ ό ματ ό ς μου.” (I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth ) ST. JOHN'S REVELATION - 3  Review of the Similarities & Differences between Greek and English Grammar. Put it all together!  Review on Greek language basic features  Asking what’s on the menu and ordering Greek food and drink  Telling the time in Greek  Asking about public transport, finding out travel times and checking travel details  Watch a relevant movie in Greek  Practise ordering Greek food & drinks at ‘Simply Greek’!

3 Punctuation Greek mark English mark Full stop (τελεία) ‘. ’ Comma (κόμμα) ‘, ’ Raised point - semicolon (άνω τελεία) ‘ · ’ ‘ ; ’ Colon (διπλή άνω και κάτω τελεία) (διπλή άνω και κάτω τελεία) ‘ : ’ Question mark (ερωτηματικό) ‘ ; ’ ‘ ? ’ Exclamation mark (θαυμαστικό) ‘ ! ’ ‘ ! ’ Parentheses (παρενθέσεις) ‘ ( ) ’

4 The stress-mark  The stress mark (΄) is used, in every word with more than one syllable (with few exceptions), to show the primary or main stressed syllable in the word.  Some simple rules: 1. The stress mark always falls on one of the vowels and never on a consonant 2. The stress mark is placed over the appropriate vowel if lower- case, and beside it if upper-case: ά but Ά, έ but Έ, ή but Ή, ί but Ί, ό but Ό, ύ but Ύ 3. If a word is entirely in upper-case letters, the stress accent is omitted altogether. However, if a word stars with upper-case letter and lower-case letters follow then a stressed mark is required i.e.: Έξοδος but ΕΞΟΔΟΣ (Exit) Be careful sometimes the meaning of otherwise identical words is determined the position of the stress-mark i.e.: Ο γέρος = The old man, but γερός = robust, able bodied

5 Some useful observations  In modern Greek all ο’s and ι’s have exactly the same pronunciation : Sound i as in machine o as in lot Letter Η η, Ι ι, Υ υ Ο ο, Ω ω So why bother with so many different ο’s & ι’s ? Well this has not always been the case. Indeed, in Ancient Greek each letter was pronounced differently : ( η as the French ê in ‘tête’, υ as short French u in ‘lune’, while ω as aw in ‘saw’ or long o in ‘go’). In order to both preserve the beauty of the Greek Language and be able to trace modern words back to their ancient origins, we keep the different ι’s and ο’s even though we pronounce them in exactly the same way.

6 Greek-English differences  Consistency between spelling & pronunciation of the Greek letters. Contrary to popular belief Greek is not a difficult language to speak, particularly at the beginners level. Unlike English, the same letter or combination of letters, is pronounced in exactly the same way wherever it occurs.

7 Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΙ, αι άλφα – γιώτα álfa-yótae set ΕΙ, ει έψιλον-γιώταépsilon-yóta ι/e machine/ these ΟΙ, οι όμικρον-γιώταómikron-yótai/e machine/ these ΟΥ, ου όμικρον-ύψιλονómikron-ípsilonu/oo put/soon

8 Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon af, θ,κ,ξ after, π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon avβ,γ,δ, avenue ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonefθ,κ,ξ effort π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonev β,γ,δ, ever ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ

9 Double-vowels are pronounced separately if:  A diaeresis diacritic (i.e.: “¨”) falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γαϊδάρου “donkey” [gen.]).  An accent falls upon the first of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γάιδαρος “donkey [nom]). However, if the accent falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels then a diaeresis is needed in order for the vowels to be pronounced separately! (i.e.: καΐκι [wooden boat, ketch]).

10 Let’s Practice – try to pronounce the following words Greek word MeaningTransliteration ευτράπελοςfacetious Εύβοια ευφυής bright - clever bright - clever θεϊκόςdivine γάιδαροςdonkey παύωcease υιοθετώadopt

11 Two-letters consonants (double sounds) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : γκ (γκρεμός Αγκάθι) Γάμα-κάπαgháma-kápag/ng go/ England Μπ (Μπαούλο Αμπέλι) μι – πι mi – pib/mpBoy/ amber amber ντ (ντύνω πέντε) νι-ταυni-táfd/nd day/ end

12 Some useful observations  In Greek a noun (i.e.: the word Canadian in the phrase I am Canadian) has to be written differently when it denotes different gender: –Είμαι Καναδός – I am Canadian (man) – Είμαι Καναδέζα – I am Canadian (woman) –That means that Greek nouns are inflected for gender  In Greek a noun has to be written also differently when is being used as an object than as a subject: –Είμαι από τον Καναδά – I am from Canada –Ο Καναδάς είναι η πατρίδα μου – Canada is my homeland –That means that Greek nouns are inflected for case also  In Greek a noun is almost always preceded by an article (the). The noun and the preceding article have to agree in gender, case and number.

13 Differences between Greek-English languages continued..  In Greek almost all words within a noun phrase (noun, article, adjective, pronoun) are declinable in gender, number and case. In English this happens only with the pronouns! –She went to the store. The clerk greeted her and handed over a small package. The new camera was hers at last!  Moreover, within a noun phrase all other declinable words must agree with the noun in gender, number and case.

14 How on Earth we can guess the gender of a given Greek noun? Some tips:  All masculine nouns (nominative/singular) end in “ς”  Almost all feminine nouns end in either “α or η”  Most neuter nouns end in “ο, ι, or μα”  Of course, there are exceptions, and there are those words ending in “ος”, which can be of any gender.

15 Differences between Greek- English  The normal order of a sentence in Greek is like that in English: subject, verb, object. There is no special tendency as in Latin to put the verb at the end. However, Greek can vary the order for purposes of emphasis or euphony much more freely than in English. For example: Ο Χρήστος κυνηγάει τη Μαρία but also Tη Μαρία κυνηγάει ο Χρήστος. (Christos chases Mary). Ο Χρήστος κυνηγάει τη Μαρία but also Tη Μαρία κυνηγάει ο Χρήστος. (Christos chases Mary).  Thus, when you translate from Greek you have to concentrate at the case of the noun (illustrated by its inflectional ending) rather than its order within the sentence.

16 Differences between Greek- English  You will be pleased to know that to ask questions in Greek there are no changes in word order as in English, such as you are – are you?, or the addition of extra words (you love me – do you love me?).  You just have to remember that the pitch of your voice goes up: –Eίσαι Ιρλανδός means you are Irish when the pitch of your voice goes down at the end and are you Irish? when the pitch of your voice goes up at the end

17 Personal Pronouns  Personal pronouns (I, you, he, they) are used to refer to the three grammatical persons and are also part of the English verbs since they define who is doing or receiving the action. Even though Greek has equivalent corresponding words they are normally left out and mostly used only for emphasis (i.e.: Εσύ, τι κάνεις εδώ; You [and nobody else!], what are you doing here;)

18 Differences between Greek- English  While in English the personal pronoun is always used together with the verb in order to distinguish the person that it is referring to, in Greek this is not necessary. The ending of the verb itself differs from the first person to the second and so on, and this indicates whether the speaker is referring to himself or herself, or to another person or persons: Sg.1είμαι I am 2είσαι you are 3είναι (s)he/it is Pl.1είμαστε we are 2είστε You are 2είσαστε 3είναι they are

19 Asking for something in a shop GreekPronunciationEnglish Τι θέλετε; Μπορώ να σας βοηθήσω; Ορίστε; Ti thelete? Mporo na sas voithiso? Oriste? What do you want? Can I help you? Yes? Θέλω ένα/μία … thelo ena/mia.. I want a … Μήπως έχετε; Mipos echete Do you have? Ναι, έχουμε Ne, echoume Yes, we have Δυστυχώς μας τελείωσε/τελείωσαν Δυστυχώς μας τελείωσε/τελείωσαν THistichos, mas teliose/teliosan Unfortunately, we have not any/have sold out

20 Saying how much you want GreekPronunciationEnglish Πόσο/Πόσα θέλετε; Poso/Posa thelete; How much/many do you want? Θέλω ένα κιλό ντομάτες thelo ena kilo domates I want a kilo of tomatoes Θέλω μισό κιλό φασολάκια thelo miso kilo fasolakia I want half a kilo of green beans Θέλω ένα τέταρτο ελιές thelo ena tetarto elies I want a quarter of a kilo of olives Θέλω τετρακόσια πενήντα γραμμάρια λεμόνια thelo tetrakosia peninda gramaria lemonia I want 450g of lemons

21 Saying how much you want … GreekPronunciationEnglish Θέλω … thelo… I want … ένα πακέτο μπισκότα/ βούτυρο ena paketo biskota/ vutiro (vootiro) a packet of biscuits/ butter μία φραντζόλα ψωμί mia frantzola psomi a loaf of bread ένα κομμάτι τυρί ena komati tiri a piece of cheese Ένα μπουκάλι νερό ena bukali (bookali) nero a bottle of water ένα βάζο μέλι ena bazo meli a jar of honey

22 Asking how much it costs?  Πόσο κάνει /κοστίζει αυτό; (poso kani/ kostizi afto?) –How much is it?  Κάνει / κοστίζει 6 ευρώ (kani exi evro) –It’s 6 euros  Πόσο κάνουν(ε) / κοστίζουν αυτά (poso kanune/ kostizoon afta?) –How much are they?  Κάνουν(ε) / κοστίζουν 8 ευρώ και 50 λεπτά (kanune ochto evro ke peninda lepta) –They are 8 euros and 50.

23 Money matters! GreekPronunciationEnglish Τα χρήματα / λεφτά Ta chrimata / lefta Money Το ευρώ To evro To evroEuro* Το λεπτό To lepto Cent Τα κέρματα Ta kermata Coins Τα χαρτονομίσματα Ta chartonomismata Paper money Τα ψιλά / ρέστα Ta psila / resta Ta psila / restaChange * The current (20/06/2005) exchange rate is 1.00 EUR = GBP or 1 GBP = EUR

24 Telling the time in Greek  Telling the time is not difficult. You just have to remember that in Greek we put first the hour and then the minutes: –ten (minutes) past five –Πέντε και δέκα (λεπτά)  When telling the time, the numbers 1,3,4 change to: 1-> μία, 3 -> τρεις, 4 -> τέσσερις

25 Essential ‘telling the time’ Vocabulary πέντε5ώραhour δέκα10ώρεςhours είκοσι20λεπτόminute είκοσι πέντε 25λεπτάminutes καιpastπμam παράtoμμpm και τέταρτο quarter past ακριβώςexactly/sharp παρά τέταρτο quarter to νωρίςearly και μισή half past αργάlate

26 Asking for the time GreekTransliterationEnglish Τι ώρα είναι; ti ora ine? What time is it? Έχετε ώρα; echete ora? Do you have the time? Μπορείτε να μου πείτε την ώρα; mporite na mu pite tin ora? Can you tell me the time? Ξέρετε τι ώρα είναι; xerete ti ora ine Do you know what time is it?

27 Καλό ταξίδι (Bon voyage) – Means of transportation GreekPronunciationEnglish Tο καράβι To karavi The boat Το αεροπλάνο To aeroplano The aeroplane Το τραίνο To treno The train Το λεωφορείο To leoforeeo The bus Το πούλμαν To pulman/poolman The coach Το δελφίνι To THelfini “Flying dolphin” Το εισιτήριο To isitirio The ticket Απλό/μεεπιστροφή Aplo / me epistrofi Single / return

28 Finding out travel times GreekPronunciationEnglish Τι ώρα φεύγει το λεωφορείο; Ti ora fevgi to leoforeeo What time does the bus lives? Το λεωφορείο φεύγει στις έξι το πρωί / σε μία ώρα To leoforeeo fevgi stis eksi / se mia ora The bus leaves at 6 in the morning/ in one hour Πόση ώρα διαρκεί το ταξίδι; Posi oraTHiarki to taksiTHi How long does the journey take? (Το ταξίδι) διαρκεί τρεις ώρες (To taksiTHi) THiarki tris ores It takes 3 hours Τι ώρα φτάνει το καράβι; Ti ora ftani to karavi? What time does the boat arrive? Το καράβι φτάνει στις επτά το βράδυ to karavi ftani stis epta The boat arrives at 7 in the evening

29 Buying Tickets GreekPronunciationEnglish Πότε φεύγει το καράβι για την Τζιά; Pote fevgi to karavi gia thn Tzia? When does the boat for Tzia leave? Φεύγει (για την Τζιά) στις δέκα το πρωί Fevgi (gia tin Tzia) stis THeka to proi It leaves (for Tzia) at 10 in the morning Θέλω ένα εισιτήριο παρακαλώ Thelo ena isitirio parakalo I want one ticket please Απλό ή με επιστροφή? Aplo i me epistrofi Single or return? Με επιστροφή παρακαλώ. Πόσο κάνει; Me epistrofi parakalo. Poso kanei? Return please. How much is it? Είκοσι ευρώ. Ορίστε Ikosi evro. Oriste €20. Here you are

30 Learner A gives the prompts by starting the dialogue and learner B has to choose which of the responses on his/her card is appropriate. € 35

31 Καλή όρεξη  The waiter might say: GreekPronunciationEnglish Τι θέλετε; Ti thelete? What do you want? Τι θα πάρετε Ti tha parete? What will you take? ΠαρακαλώΟρίστε; Parakalo? Oriste? Please?Yes? Τι θα φάτε; Τι θα φάτε; Τι θα πιείτε; Ti tha fate Ti tha pyeete What will you eat? What will you drink?

32 Καλή όρεξη  You might say: GreekPronunciationEnglish ΘέλωΘέλουμε Thelo Theloumay I want We want Θα πάρω Θα πάρουμε Tha paro Tha paroumay I will take We will take Τον κατάλογο παρακαλώ Ton katalogo parakalo The menu please Τι έχετε; Μήπως έχετε; Ti echete? Mipos echete? What do you have? I wonder if you have?

33 Places to eat GreekPronunciationEnglish ΤαβέρναΕστιατόριο Taverna Estiatorio TavernRestaurant Ψαροταβέρνα Psarotaverna Fish tavern Ψησταριά Psistaria Grills Μεζεδοπωλείο mezeTHopolio Tavern offering a plethora of appetizers

34 Understanding a Greek menu GreekPronunciationEnglish Ορεκτικά Orektika Starters Της ώρας Ths oras Dishes cooked to order Ψητά Psita Grills Σαλάτες Salates Salads Γλυκά Glika Desserts Βραστ-ός(-ή,-ό) Vrast-os(i,o) Boiled Τηγανιτ-ός(-ή,-ό) Tiganitos(i,o) Fried Κρασάτ-ος(-η,-ο) Krasat-os(i,o) In wine Γεμιστ-ός(-ή,-ό) Gemistos(i,o) Stuffed Στο φούρνο Sto fourno Baked

35 Ορεκτικά GreekPronunciationEnglish Τζατζίκι tzatziki Yoghurt-cucumber dip Ταραμοσαλάτα taramosalata taramasalata Μελιτζανοσαλάτα melitzanosalata Aubergine dip Καλαμαράκια Kalamarakia Squid Φέτα Feta Feta cheese Σαγανάκι Saganaki Fried cheese Γαρίδες σαγανάκι gariTHes saganaki Fried shrimps

36 Ορεκτικά GreekPronunciationEnglish ντολμάδες dolmaTHes Rice or rice and minced meat wrapped in vine leaves Λουκάνικο χωριάτικο Loukaniko choriatiko Spiced sausage Γίγαντες Gigantes Beans (big) Μελιτζάνες τηγανιτές Melitzanes gemistes Fried aubergine Πατάτες τηγανιτές Patates tiganites French fries Ποικιλία Pikilia Assorted appetizers

37 Της Ώρας GreekPronunciationEnglish Μπριζόλα (μοσχαρίσια/χοιρινή) Brizola (moscharisia/ chirini) Steak (veal, pork) Σουβλάκια Souvlakia Chunks of pork on a skewer Κεφτέδες KefteTHes Grilled meat balls Λουκάνικα Loukanika Sausages Παϊδάκια PaiTHakia Lamb chops

38 Κιμάδες (minced meat dishes) GreekPronunciationEnglish Μουσακάς Mousakas Layers of aubergine, potatoes and minced meat topped with béchamel sauce Παστίτσιο Pastitsio As above but with spaghetti instead of aubergine Μακαρόνια με κιμά Makaronia me kima Spaghetti with mince Ντομάτες γεμιστές Domates gemistes Tomatoes stuffed with rice and minced meat Πιπεριές γεμιστές Piperies gemistes Green peppers stuffed with rice and minced meat

39 Σαλάτες GreekPronunciationEnglish Χωριάτικη σαλάτα Choriatiki salata Greek salad (lit: villager’s salad) Λάχανο Lachano Cabbage Μαρούλι Marouli Lettuce Αγγούρι Angouri Cucumber Τονοσαλάτα Tonosalata Tuna salad Εποχής Epochis Season Salad

40 Try to repeat and translate the following dialogue Waiter: Καλημέρα σας You: Γεια σας. Τον κατάλογο παρακαλώ Waiter: Ορίστε. Τι θα πιείτε; You: Ένα μπουκάλι κόκκινο κρασί, δυο μπύρες, ένα καραφάκι ούζο και ένα μπουκάλι εμφιαλωμένο νερό παρακαλώ. Waiter:Μάλιστα, τι θα φάτε; You: Μία τονοσαλάτα, ένα μουσακά, μία γίγαντες και δύο σουβλάκια παρακαλώ Waiter:Αμέσως ………….. Ορίστε, καλή όρεξη …….. After the meal …….. You: Να σας πληρώσω; Waiter:Μάλιστα. Πενήντα τέσσερα ευρώ παρακαλώ You: Ορίστε εξήντα. Κρατήστε τα ρέστα. ‘Ήταν πολύ νόστιμα Waiter:Σας ευχαριστώ πολύ. Γεια σας.


Κατέβασμα ppt "10 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis. Today’s Attractions  “ ὄ φελον ψυχρ ὸ ς ἦ ς ἢ ζεστ ό ς. Ο ὕ τως ὅ τι χλιαρ ὸ ς ε ἶ, κα ὶ ο ὔ τε ζεστ ὸ ς."

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