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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 11.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 11."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 11

2 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

3 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

4 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Only a handful of 3rd declension nouns in Greek have stems ending in -ρ. Unfortunately, nearly all display minor irregularities and some are very common words. As long as you know the full vocabulary entry (nom sg., gen. sg., gender), you should have no trouble recognizing the case and number of the forms when you see them.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ In the nominative singular, the combination –ρς is generally forbidden, so the –ς ending drops and the vowel preceding the –ρ- lengthens (ε  η, ο  ω) to make up for the lost –ς

6 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Thus the forms of ῥήτωρ, ῥήτορος ὁ “orator” singular Nom. ῥήτωρ Gen. ῥήτορος Dat. ῥήτορι Acc. ῥήτορα Voc. ῥῆτορ plural Nom. ῥήτορες Gen. ῥητόρων Dat. ῥήτορσι Acc. ῥήτορας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: ῥητορς  ῥητωρ

7 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Three nouns with stems in -ρ are similar in their irregularities: –μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ “mother” –πατήρ, πατρός ὁ “father” –θυγάτηρ, θυγατρός ἡ “daughter”

8 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ The stem of each ends in –τερ. Each end their nominative singular in -τηρ. Each accent their nominative singular differently (“mother” on the left, “father” on the right, and “daughter” in the middle). –But each accent their vocative singular all the way to the left. In the gen. and dat sg., –τερ contracts to –τρ. The dat pl. ends in -τρασι.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Thus the forms of μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ “mother” singular Nom. μήτηρ Gen. μητρός Dat. μητρί Acc. μητέρα Voc. μῆτερ plural Nom. μητέρες Gen. μητέρων Dat. μητράσι Acc. μητέρας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: μητερς  μητηρ gen/dat. sg.: μητερ-  μητρ- dat. pl.: μητερσι  μητρασι

10 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Thus the forms of πατήρ, πατρός ὁ “father” singular Nom. πατήρ Gen. πατρός Dat. πατρί Acc. πατέρα Voc. πάτερ plural Nom. πατέρες Gen. πατέρων Dat. πατράσι Acc. πατέρας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: πατερς  πατηρ gen/dat. sg.: πατερ-  πατρ- dat. pl.: πατερσι  πατρασι

11 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Thus the forms of θυγάτηρ, θυγατρός ἡ “daughter” singular Nom. θυγάτηρ Gen. θυγατρός Dat. θυγατρί Acc. θυγατέρα Voc. θύγατερ plural Nom. θυγατέρες Gen. θυγατέρων Dat. θυγατράσι Acc. θυγατέρας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: θυγατερς  θυγατηρ gen/dat. sg.: θυγατερ-  θυγατρ- dat. pl.: θυγατερσι  θυγατρασι

12 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Also similar is ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ “man” –The stem is ἀνερ (visible in the vocative singular) –In the nominative singular, ἀνερς  ἀνηρ –In all other forms, δ replaces the ε ( ἀνερ -  ἀνδρ -) –Once again, in the dat pl. -ερ- becomes -ρα-. –The accent pattern follows πατήρ, πατρός ὁ “father”

13 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ Thus the forms of ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ “man” singular Nom. ἀνήρ Gen. ἀνδρός Dat. ἀνδρί Acc. ἄνδρα Voc. ἄνερ plural Nom. ἄνδρες Gen. ἀνδρῶν Dat. ἀνδράσι Acc. ἄνδρας Voc. = nom. ἀνερ-  ἀνδρ- nom. sg.: ἀνερσ  ἀνηρ dat. pl.: ἀνερσι  ἀνδρασι

14 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

15 Shelmerdine Chapter Syllabic and temporal augments To form secondary tenses (imperfect, aorist), verbs in the indicative add an augment to the beginning of the stem. When the stem begins with a consonant, the augment appears as an ἐ-. –λυ-  ἐλυ-

16 Shelmerdine Chapter Syllabic and temporal augments When the stem begins with a vowel, the initial vowel lengthens: –present  imperfect –ἄγω  ἦγον –ἐθέλω  ἤθελον –ὀνομάζω  ὠνόμαζον With some vowels, the augment will not be apparent: –ἱκετεύω  ἱκέτευον –ἥκω  ἧκον

17 Shelmerdine Chapter Syllabic and temporal augments So far, the following verbs from your vocabulary augment initial vowel sounds: –present  imperfect –ἀγγέλλω  ἤγγελλον –ἄγω  ἦγον –ἀκούω  ἤκουον –ἀναγκάζω  ἠνάγκαζον –ἄρχω  ἦρχον –ἐθέλω  ἤθελον –εὑρίσκω  ηὕρισκον –ἔχω  εἶχον (irregular) –ἥκω  ἧκον

18 Shelmerdine Chapter Syllabic and temporal augments Remember that the aorist (third principal part) will be listed with the augment already added: –present  aorist –ἀγγέλλω  ἤγγειλα –ἄγω  ἦγαγον –ἀκούω  ἤκουσα –ἀναγκάζω  ἠνάγκασα –ἄρχω  ἦρξα –ἐθέλω  ἠθέλησα –ἐλαύνω  ἤλασα –εὑρίσκω  ηὗρον

19 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

20 Shelmerdine Chapter Augments of compound verbs There are 18 Greek prepositions which can also serve as prefixes to verbs, for example: –ἀπο “from” + πέμπω “send” = ἀποπέμπω “send away” Most of these prepositions elide for pronunciation purposes: –ἀπο + πέμπω = ἀποπέμπω –ἀπο + ἔχω = ἀπέχω

21 Shelmerdine Chapter Augments of compound verbs There are 18 Greek prepositions which can also serve as prefixes to verbs. Most of these prepositions elide for pronunciation purposes. A handout in Moodle lists all these prefixes and their elided forms.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Augments of compound verbs The preposition/prefix is added after the main verb is augmented and accented, for example: –ἀπο “from” + πέμπουσι “they send” = ἀποπέμπουσι “they send away” –ἀπο “from” + ἔπεμπον “they sent” = ἀπέπεμπον “they sent away” –ἀπο “from” + ἄγουσι “they lead” = ἀπάγουσι “they lead away” –ἀπο “from” + ἦγον “they led” = ἀπῆγον “they led away”

23 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Principal parts of palatal stem verbs Page 60 gives the first four principal parts for all the palatal (κ, γ, χ) stem verbs so far in your vocabulary. Recall that a palatal (κ, γ, χ) followed by a σ is written ξ, so the future (2 nd principal part) and aorist (3 rd principal part) will normally display ξ. For irregularities, see notes and next section.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter rd declension nouns: stems in -ρ 2.Syllabic and temporal augments 3.Augments of compound verbs 4.Principal parts of palatal stem thematic verbs 5.The strong aorist active of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part)

26 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist Some verbs in Greek have an aorist form which does not use the distinctive –σα marker. Such verbs are said to have a “strong (second)” aorist. Strong (second) aorists differ from weak (first) aorists only in form. They do not differ in meaning or translation.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist Instead of the –σα marker, verbs with a strong (second) aorist will show – ον in their third principal part. ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον (strong/second aorist) ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα (weak/first aorist) λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα (weak/first aorist)

28 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist The strong (second) aorist has an augment in the indicative, just as the imperfect and weak/first aorist do. Strong (second) aorists, however, use the same secondary endings as the imperfect tense. Consider the verb λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 singular ἐλάμβανον ἐλάμβανες ἐλάμβανε plural ἐλαμβάνομεν ἐλαμβάνετε ἐλάμβανον imperfect tense stem = λαμβαν

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 singular ἔλαβον ἔλαβες ἔλαβε plural ἐλάβομεν ἐλάβετε ἔλαβον aorist tense stem = λαβ

31 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist You have learned eight verbs so far that have a strong/second aorist: ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον “lead” ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι, ἀπέθανον “die” εἰσβάλλω, εἰσβαλῶ, εἰσέβαλον “attack” εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω, ηὗρον/εὗρον “find” ἔχω, ἕξω/σχήσω, ἔσχον “have” λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον “take” φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγκον “carry” φεύγω, φεύξομαι, ἔφυγον “flee”

32 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist There is no reliable pattern to the stem changes between the present stem and the strong/second aorist stems, so you must memorize the requisite principal parts. Of the 247 base verbs (that is, uncompounded verbs) in the LSU Core Vocabulary, only 36 have strong/second aorists. Verbs with strong/second aorists tend to be older, core vocabulary, however, so the forms appear very frequently.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist Most verbs with strong aorists display their stem in the aorist and expand to form their present stem: θαν- (aor)  θνῄσκ- (pres) “die” βαλ- (aor)  βαλλ- (pres) “throw” εὗρ- (aor)  εὑρίσκ- (pres) “find” λαβ- (aor)  λαμβάν- (pres) “take” φυγ- (aor)  φεύγ- (pres) “flee”

34 Shelmerdine Chapter Strong aorist Other verbs have idiosyncratic stem changes: ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον “lead” –The presen stem αγ – doubles to form the aorist stem. ἔχω, ἕξω/σχήσω, ἔσχον “have” –The stem is σεχ – appears in shortened form in each tense. φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγκον “carry” –These are really different verbs used in different tenses (just as English uses “went” [past tense of “wend”] as the past tense of “go”).

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 for tomorrow (Tuesday, November 8, 2005): Quiz: Chapter 10 Vocabulary. –Verbs: omit ἀποφεύγω, εἰσβάλλω, προπέμπω, ταράττω –Nouns: omit Δαρεῖος, θήρ, κάμηλος, Κῦρος, Λεωνίδας, –Adjectives: omit μῶρος –Prepositions: omit ὄπισθεν prepare Practice A, Exercises 41 and 46 for class.

36 Xerxes invades Greece Hellespont (facing north)

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 μετὰ δὲ τὸν τοῦ πατρὸς θάνατον ὁ Ξέρξης ἦρχε τῶν Περσῶν. ὅτι δ’ ἤθελε κολάζειν τοὺς Ἕλληνας διὰ τὰς ἀδικίας αὐτῶν, ἐβούλευσε διαβαίνειν τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον καὶ στρατιὰν ἄγειν διὰ τῆς Εὐρώπης ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα· ἐκέλευσεν οὖν Φοίνικας καὶ Αἰγυπτίους οἳ σύμμαχοι ἦσαν τῶν Περσῶν, δύο γεφύρας κατασκευάζειν. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ ἔργον ἔπραξαν, χειμὼν μέγιστος κατέλυσε τὰς γεφύρας.

38 The Achaemenid Rulers of Persia Xerxes Cyrus the Great Darius

39 Egypt Hellespont Phoenicia

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 ὁ οὖν Ξέρξης μάλιστα ἐχαλέπαινε καὶ ἐκέλευσε τοὺς ἄνδρας οὐ μόνον τόν τε Ἑλλήσποντον τριακοσίαις πληγαῖς τύπτειν καὶ δύο πέδας εἰς αὐτὸν βάλλειν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀποτέμνειν τὰς τῶν ἐπιστατῶν κεφαλάς. ἔπειτα δὲ ἄλλους ἐπιστάτας ἐκέλευσε κατασκευάζειν τὰς γεφύρας.

41 Xerxes at the Hellespont

42

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Θεὸς Ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον κατ' εἰκόνα ἡμετέραν καὶ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν· καὶ ἀρχέτωσαν τῶν ἰχθύων τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐράνου, καὶ τῶν κτηνῶν, καὶ πάσης τῆς γῆς, καὶ πάντων τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἑρπόντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. ἀρχέτωσαν "let him rule" γῆ γῆς ἡ earth εἰκών, εἰκόνος ἡ "image" εἶπεν “said” ἑρπετόν –οῦ τό "crawling creature" ἑρπών, ἑρπόντος ὁ "which crawls" ἡμέτερος –α –ον "our" ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος ὁ "fish" κατά +acc. according to κτῆνος, κτήνεος τό "beast" ὁμοίωσις, ὁμοιώσεως ἡ "likeness" οὐρανός –οῦ ὁ "sky" πάσης (gen sg fem) πάντων (gen pl) "all" (predicate position) πετεινός -ή -όν "winged" ποιέω "make« ποιήσωμεν "Let us make"

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 11 καὶ ἐποίησεν τὸν ἄνθρωπον· κατ' εἰκόνα Θεοῦ ἐποίησεν αὐτόν· ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς. καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς ὁ Θεὸς, καὶ ἄρχετε τῶν ἰχθύων τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ πάντων τῶν κτηνῶν, καὶ πάσης τῆς γῆς, καὶ πάντων τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἑρπόντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ "masculine and feminine" γῆ γῆς ἡ earth ἑρπετόν –οῦ τό crawling creature ἑρπών, ἑρπόντος ὁ which crawl(s) ἐυλογέω bless ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος ὁ fish κατά +acc. according to κτῆνος, κτήνεος τό beast οὐρανός –οῦ ὁ sky πάσης (gen sg fem) πάντων (gen pl) all (predicate position) πετεινός -ή -όν winged ποιέω make

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 10 Exam #4 has four parts: –For B., the noun will be one of σῶμα, σώματος τό “body” (Chapter 8) ἔρως, ἔρωτος ὁ “love” (Chapter 9) νύξ, νυκτός ἡ “night” (Chapter 9) λέων, λέοντος ὁ “lion” (Chapter 9) –The adjective will be either (see page 25) σοφός -ή -όν “wise” or φίλιος -α -ον “friendly”


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