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Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων
Πρότυπα Μαθησιακών Τεχνολογιών

2 Metadata (to describe learning content & objects)
Content Packaging (to transfer & display content) QTI (to describe portable tests and return results) LIP (to describe learners and their learning)

3 Outcome subject/discipline area, target knowledge/ skills Activity
Environment available tools, facilities, services, resources, environments etc Learner(s) needs, motives, prior experience of learning, social and interpersonal skills, learning styles and approaches Outcome subject/discipline area, target knowledge/ skills Knowledge represented in specific media and formats; skills facilitated through specific tools; impact of learning environments on the meaning of knowledge and skills Prior subject knowledge and skills of learner(s), prior conceptions, motivation to achieve specific outcomes, match of style/ approach to content Prior experience of learner(s) with tools, environments, services; match of learning style and approach to affordances of learning environment Activity ‘interaction of learner with environment, leading to planned outcome’ A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04) & (P. Goodyear, 2002)

4 σύνοψη σύντομη εισαγωγή στα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών
what, why, how LOM, LIP content packaging, simple sequencing, QTI, learning design

5 The Program: Learning Content
Ψηφιακό Υλικό Δημιουργία Learning Content Authoring Tools Τεμαχισμός Επαναχρησιμοποίηση Συναρμολόγηση Learning Brokers Access Εισαγωγή LMS Deliver Learner Record system

6 Ένα λειτουργικό μοντέλο των e-Learning Εφαρμογών
Content Authoring Tools Catalog Manager Content Assembly Tools Learner Registrar Delivery Environment Content Repository and Offering Catalog Learning Planner Collaborative Environment Learner Profile Manager Activity Info Offerings Register Info Goals Plans Assessment / Testing Engine Results Info Assessment Objects Learning Recorded Events See e-Learning Application Infrastructure by Geoff Collier

7 Ποιος κάνει τι… Search, catalog, discover learning content
Metadata Digital Repositories Content/LMS interoperability CMI SCORM Assessment Question & Test Interoperability Enable Adaptivity Learner Information Package Personal and Private Information Competency Definitions System Interoperability Open Knowledge Initiative Schools Interoperability Framework IMS Abstract Framework Instructional Design IMS Learning Design

8 Ποιος κάνει τι… CEN/ISSS ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 Dublin Core eLIG AICC
Singapore IMS Asia CEN/ISSS ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 ALIC Dublin Core AICC LOM (metadata) is an approved IEEE standard. eLIG

9 Οργανισμοί Προτυποποίησης
IMS Global Learning Consortium IEEE LTSC - Learning Technologies Standards Committee CEN/ISSS LTW - European Committee for Standardisation, Information Society Standardisation System, Learning Technologies Workshop ADLnet - Advanced Distributed Learning Project AICC - Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee

10 History of Standards Railway Tracks
By the late 1860’s nine different train track gauges (σιδηροτροχιές) sizes were in use in North America. Why? Strictly used for local transportation or rival ambitions of the competition “Standardization of gauge facilitates the exchange of rolling stock, enabling freight shipment and passenger traffic to pass over the track of multiple companies.” Source: Standardization of Track Gauge on North American Railways (2000) Journal of Economic History Standards = Interoperability

11 παράδειγμα αναπτύσσουμε μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS (π.χ lecture1.ppt) το αποθηκεύουμε στο server του Moodle ώστε να είναι διαθέσιμο κάποιος συνάδελφος θέλει να βρει μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS πώς θα βρει το περιεχόμενό μας, που είναι ήδη διαθέσιμο?

12 Digital Repositories… an Analogy
Labeling = “Metadata” Market’s Organic Yogurt (title) 2% plain yogurt (description) 500 grams (size) Container of yogurt = ‘learning object’ Refrigerator = ‘Digital Repository’ HOW YOU USE A LEARNING OBJECT is Up to You –e.g., you may use yogurt in different recipes. A large storage area for objects Different shapes and sizes and content Metadata allows for search and retrieval Janet Bartz 2002

13 Learning Objects Learning Objects Meta-data
Ενιαίος τρόπος περιγραφής μαθησιακών πόρων, ώστε να είναι ευκολότερη και αποτελεσματικότερη η αναζήτηση/ανεύρεσή τους. Lego Example Content is seen as “building blocks” Module from one course using ‘chunks’ of content. Module from another course re-purposing ‘chunks’ of content and adding new content.

14 Learning Object Models
Lego Small pieces Assemble in many ways All lego blocks fit together Anybody can put Lego together Atoms (D. Wiley) Small pieces Not every atom is combinable with every other atom Atoms can only be assembled in certain structures prescribed by their own internal structure Some training is required in order to assemble atoms “Ideal” concept Definitions vary: “as small as a drop, as wide as the ocean” the context of how learning objects are used is important need the “glue” to tie learning objects together to create a meaningful learning experience A bit more reality-based concept

15 Metadata:“Information about Information”
Administrative metadata Author Revision date Rights, . . . Technical metadata (medium-specific) Duration Digital format Platform requirements, . . . Subject classification Catalogue system Subject heading Keywords Map Text Interactive Image Video (Learning Object)

16 Examples of Canadian Learning Object Repositories
Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects LearnAlberta.ca TeleCampus eduSource Canada Project

17 USA-Based Examples Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching Gateway to Educational Materials

18 EducaNext Homepage

19 Metadata

20 Federated Search Broker 1 Broker 4 Broker 3 Broker 2

21 Learning Object Metadata?
LO files Images Text Video Audio

22 What is a Learning Object Repository?
Metadata Repository Content Repository

23 Learning Object Repositories
Search Request Content sent to User Metadata Repository Content Located LOR1 LOR2 LOR3 LOR# Content Repositories

24 IEEE LOM – Meta-data Structure
Learning object data elements are grouped into nine categories: Category Function 1 General General information 2 Lifecycle Features related to the history and current state of the learning object 3 Meta-Metadata Information about the metadata instance itself 4 Technical The technical requirements and technical characteristics of the learning object 5 Educational Groups the educational and pedagogic characteristics of the learning object

25 IEEE LOM – Meta-data Structure
Category Function 6 Rights Groups the intellectual property rights and conditions of use for the learning object 7 Relation Features that define the relationship between the learning object and other related learning objects 8 Annotation Provides comments on the educational use of the learning object 9 Classification Describes this learning object in relation to a particular classification system

26 IMS Content package Έχει 2 συστατικά:
Ένα ειδικό XML έγγραφο που περιγράφει την οργάνωση του περιεχομένου και αναφορές στα αντίστοιχα αρχεία IMS manifest file: imsmanifest.xml. Το Manifest file είναι μια περιγραφή σε XML κάποιων πόρων που συναποτελούν το υλικό του μαθήματος. Περιλαμβάνει επίσης τρόπους στατικής οργάνωσης των πόρων για παρουσίαση Τα ίδια τα αρχεία Τα παραπάνω ενοποιούνται σε ένα αρχείο (.zip, .jar, .cab κλπ) που πλέον ονομάζεται Package Interchange File.

27 IMS Content package

28 Logical and Packaging View
Logical View Learning Content Structure as seen on the browser Packaging View Learning Content Oganisation in IMS CP

29 The IMS content packaging manifest
<imsmanifest version="1.3" identifier=“CourseDSP"> <organizations default="TOC1"> <organization identifier="TOC1"> <title>DSP Courseware</title> <item identifier="S.10269" identifierref="S.10269_RES"> <title>Elements of Discrete Systems</title> </item> <item identifier="S.10271" identifierref="S.10271_RES"> <title>Properties of Discrete Systems</title> <item identifier="S.10273" identifierref="S.10273_RES"> <title>Sampling of Analog Systems</title> <item identifier="S.10275" identifierref="S.10275_RES"> <title>Sampling of Sinusiodal Systems</title> <! > </organization> </organizations> <resources> <resource identifier="S.10269_RES" href="units/intro_1.html"> </resource> <resource identifier="S.10271_RES" href="units/intro_2.html"> <! > </resources> </imsmanifest> The IMS content packaging manifest 8

30 Learning Content Management Systems
The SCORM ADL Run-time environment (RTE) v1.3, [http://www.adlnet.org/].

31 Για να τα πάρουμε τα πράγματα με τη σειρά ξανά …
i i i ¬^¬R R CREATE CONTENT PACKAGE, TEST & MANIPULATE [RELOAD] STORE [REPOSITORY] DELIVER [MLE]

32 Aloha Metadata Editor

33 Metadata Profile Editor 1

34 Metadata Profile Editor 2

35 Metadata Profile Editor 3

36 LRN toolkit – Ένα εργαλείο

37 simple sequencing

38 If status != “satisfied”
Simple Sequencing Activity A If status == “satisfied” Then goto C Else goto B Activity B Goto C Activity C If status == “not satisfied” Then goto A Else goto… If status != “satisfied”

39 CP and SS

40 Sequencing Information Model
Control - describes where navigation events can originate from Flow, Choice, Mixed, Auto Traversal Sequential, Any, Concurrent PreviousAllowed – is backward traversal permitted (true/false) Selection - how the set of sequenced items for the current aggregation are selected and ordered. Pre-Condition (condition, action) E.g. if max attempts exceeded, skip this item Post-Condition (condition, action) E.g. if failed, retry the item Etc… to be defined.

41 Tracking Information Model
Activity attempt count Activity duration Activity completion Activity score Activity mastery Referenced learning objective/competency completion Activity launch limits Time limits for completion Time based availability Maximum attempt limit for completion Prerequisite completion prior to entry

42 Sequencing Rules Rules include: Precondition Rules Exit Action Rule
If … then Disable this activity If … then Skip this activity in flow mode If … then Stop Forward Traversal If … then Hide this activity from Choice Exit Action Rule If … then Exit Post Condition Rules If… then Continue If… then Previous If… then Exit All If… then Retry If… then Retry All

43 Question and Test Interoperability
Επιτρέπει την ανταλλαγή δεδομένων (ερωτήσεων-test) μεταξύ διαφόρων Learning Management Systems Το QTI δεν ασχολείται με θέματα σχεδιασμού, user interfaces, τεχνολογιών ή παιδαγωγικών μοντέλων των εφαρμογών που το ακολουθούν

44 Question and Test Interoperability
Διαφορετικοί τύποι «ερωτήσεων» που καλύπτονται από το QTI: Multiple choice True false Multiple response Image hot spot Fill in the blank Select text Slide Drag object Drag target Order objects Match item Connect the points

45 An example of QTI question

46

47 The IMS QTI manifest <questestinterop> <qticomment>
Simple True/False multiple-choice example. </qticomment> <item ident="IMS_V01_I_trfl_ir_001"> <presentation label="BasicExample001"> <material><mattext> Paris is the Capital of France ? </mattext><material> <response_lid ident="TF01" rcardinality="Single" rtiming="No"> <render_choice> <response_label ident="T"> <material><mattext> True </mattext></material> </response_label> <response_label ident="F"> <material><mattext> False </mattext></material> </render_choice> </response_lid> </presentation> </item> </questestinterop> The IMS QTI manifest

48 Quiz tool Create all the familiar forms of assessment including true-false, multiple choice, short answer, matching question, random questions, numerical questions, embedded answer questions with descriptive text and graphics.

49 An example of QTI question

50 QTI Resources Specs, tutorials, DTDs and XDRs, XML examples, export validation tool The Questionmark viewer WebEx SCAAN QTI tool

51 Learner profile standards
IMS LIP IEEE PAPI We have relationships to other learners, different meaning that it is in IMS Very hard to encode preferences, language, etc. Very good structure for performance

52 Comparison of standards
IEEE PAPI categories IMS LIP categories Personal Information Identification Relations Relationships* Preference Accessibility* Performance Activity*, QCL, Competency* Portfolio Transcript*, QCL ---- Goals Interests

53 Course Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Role-part 1 Role-part 2
Activity Environment Learning objects Learning services Activity- Description People engage in Activities with Resources roles (who does what) activities (what they do) environments (where they do them and what they do with them) (services) (learning objects).

54 Educational Modelling Language

55 Δραστηριότητες για LD Problem-based learning (1) present problem (2) learner elaborates problem (e.g. through analysis, discussion) (3) learner seeks information (4) learner analyses and evaluate information for relevance (5) learner applies information to problem (6) learner presents solution(s) Conversational model (Laurillard) (1) set task goal (2) describe conception of subject (3) learner describes conception of subject (4) re-describe in light of learner action or description (5) adapt task goal in light of action or description (etc) Cognitive scaffolding (Piaget) (1) present content (2) learner engages in content-related task (3) test comprehension (4) present next content in scaffolded sequence (5) next content-related task (etc)

56 Development of EML at OU NL
At design-time the people are unknown therefore deal with Roles The fundamental roles are Learner & Teacher but allow sub-roles to be defined also Roles need to do different things at the same time allow separate activities with synchronisation points Activities can have parts and sub-parts allow activity-structures to be created Activities need to be organised over time support sequencing and user choice Resources can be of many different types knowledge objects, communications, questions & tests, collaborative services, etc Content needs to be presented via different media

57 Το όραμα…

58 συμπεράσματα τα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών προσφέρουν τη δυνατότητα να περιγράψουμε διάφορες πληροφορίες που αφορούν τη μαθησιακή διαδικασία με ένα κοινά αποδεκτό τρόπο εκπαιδευόμενους, περιεχόμενο, δραστηριότητες, κλπ με βάση αυτήν την πληροφορία μπορούμε να δημιουργήσουμε εφαρμογές εξατομικευμένης μάθησης με επαναχρησιμοποιήσιμο τρόπο

59 Ας αποφύγουμε την πολυπλοκότητα …
Design is both art and science M.C. ESCHER

60

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