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Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων Πρότυπα Μαθησιακών Τεχνολογιών.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων Πρότυπα Μαθησιακών Τεχνολογιών."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Σχεδίαση Διδακτικών Συστημάτων Πρότυπα Μαθησιακών Τεχνολογιών

2 Metadata (to describe learning content & objects) Content Packaging (to transfer & display content) QTI (to describe portable tests and return results) LIP (to describe learners and their learning)

3 Activity ‘interaction of learner with environment, leading to planned outcome’ Knowledge represented in specific media and formats; skills facilitated through specific tools; impact of learning environments on the meaning of knowledge and skills Prior subject knowledge and skills of learner(s), prior conceptions, motivation to achieve specific outcomes, match of style/ approach to content Prior experience of learner(s) with tools, environments, services; match of learning style and approach to affordances of learning environment Environment available tools, facilities, services, resources, environments etc Learner(s) needs, motives, prior experience of learning, social and interpersonal skills, learning styles and approaches Outcome subject/discipline area, target knowledge/ skills A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04) & (P. Goodyear, 2002)

4 σύνοψη  σύντομη εισαγωγή στα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών –what, why, how –LOM, LIP –content packaging, simple sequencing, QTI, learning design  σύντομη εισαγωγή στα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών –what, why, how –LOM, LIP –content packaging, simple sequencing, QTI, learning design

5 The Program: Learning Content Ψηφιακό Υλικό Learning Content Authoring Tools Learning Content Authoring Tools Τεμαχισμός Δημιουργία Επαναχρησιμοποίηση Συναρμολόγηση Learnin g Brokers Learnin g Brokers LMS Εισαγωγή Access Deliver Learner Record system

6 Ένα λειτουργικό μοντέλο των e-Learning Εφαρμογών Content Authoring Tools Catalog Manager Content Assembly Tools Learner Registrar Delivery Environment Content Repository and Offering Catalog Learning Planner Collaborative Environment Learner Profile Manager Activity Info Offerings Register Info Offerings Goals Plans Register Info Activity Info Assessment / Testing Engine Results Info Register Info Assessment Objects Learning Offerings Learning Objects Recorded Events Learning Objects Learning Objects See e-Learning Application Infrastructure by Geoff Collier

7 Ποιος κάνει τι…  Search, catalog, discover learning content –Metadata –Digital Repositories  Content/LMS interoperability –CMI –SCORM  Assessment –Question & Test Interoperability –SCORM  Search, catalog, discover learning content –Metadata –Digital Repositories  Content/LMS interoperability –CMI –SCORM  Assessment –Question & Test Interoperability –SCORM  Enable Adaptivity –Learner Information Package –Personal and Private Information –Competency Definitions  System Interoperability –Open Knowledge Initiative –Schools Interoperability Framework –IMS Abstract Framework  Instructional Design –IMS Learning Design

8 Singapore IMS Asia CEN/ISSS ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 ALIC Dublin Core AICC LOM (metadata) is an approved IEEE standard. eLIG Ποιος κάνει τι…

9 Οργανισμοί Προτυποποίησης  IMS Global Learning Consortium  IEEE LTSC - Learning Technologies Standards Committee  CEN/ISSS LTW - European Committee for Standardisation, Information Society Standardisation System, Learning Technologies Workshop  ADLnet - Advanced Distributed Learning Project  AICC - Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee  IMS Global Learning Consortium  IEEE LTSC - Learning Technologies Standards Committee  CEN/ISSS LTW - European Committee for Standardisation, Information Society Standardisation System, Learning Technologies Workshop  ADLnet - Advanced Distributed Learning Project  AICC - Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee

10 History of Standards Railway Tracks  By the late 1860’s nine different train track gauges (σιδηροτροχιές) sizes were in use in North America.  Why? Strictly used for local transportation or rival ambitions of the competition “Standardization of gauge facilitates the exchange of rolling stock, enabling freight shipment and passenger traffic to pass over the track of multiple companies.” Source: Standardization of Track Gauge on North American Railways (2000) Journal of Economic History Standards = Interoperability

11 παράδειγμα  αναπτύσσουμε μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS (π.χ lecture1.ppt) –το αποθηκεύουμε στο server του Moodle ώστε να είναι διαθέσιμο  κάποιος συνάδελφος θέλει να βρει μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS –πώς θα βρει το περιεχόμενό μας, που είναι ήδη διαθέσιμο?  αναπτύσσουμε μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS (π.χ lecture1.ppt) –το αποθηκεύουμε στο server του Moodle ώστε να είναι διαθέσιμο  κάποιος συνάδελφος θέλει να βρει μαθησιακό περιεχόμενο για LMS –πώς θα βρει το περιεχόμενό μας, που είναι ήδη διαθέσιμο?

12 Digital Repositories… an Analogy Container of yogurt = ‘learning object’ Labeling = “Metadata” • Market’s Organic Yogurt (title) • 2% plain yogurt (description) • 500 grams (size) Labeling = “Metadata” • Market’s Organic Yogurt (title) • 2% plain yogurt (description) • 500 grams (size) Janet Bartz 2002 Refrigerator = ‘Digital Repository’ • A large storage area for objects • Different shapes and sizes and content • Metadata allows for search and retrieval

13 Learning Objects Lego Example Content is seen as “building blocks” Module from one course using ‘chunks’ of content. Module from another course re-purposing ‘chunks’ of content and adding new content. Learning Objects Meta-data Ενιαίος τρόπος περιγραφής μαθησιακών πόρων, ώστε να είναι ευκολότερη και αποτελεσματικότερη η αναζήτηση/ανεύρεσή τους.

14 Learning Object Models  Lego –Small pieces –Assemble in many ways –All lego blocks fit together –Anybody can put Lego together  Lego –Small pieces –Assemble in many ways –All lego blocks fit together –Anybody can put Lego together  Atoms (D. Wiley) –Small pieces –Not every atom is combinable with every other atom –Atoms can only be assembled in certain structures prescribed by their own internal structure –Some training is required in order to assemble atoms “ Ideal” concept A bit more reality-based concept Definitions vary: • “as small as a drop, as wide as the ocean” • the context of how learning objects are used is important • need the “glue” to tie learning objects together to create a meaningful learning experience Definitions vary: • “as small as a drop, as wide as the ocean” • the context of how learning objects are used is important • need the “glue” to tie learning objects together to create a meaningful learning experience

15 Metadata:“Information about Information”  Administrative metadata –Author –Revision date –Rights,...  Technical metadata (medium- specific) –Duration –Digital format –Platform requirements,...  Subject classification –Catalogue system –Subject heading –Keywords  Map  Text  Interactive  Image  Video (Learning Object)

16 Examples of Canadian Learning Object Repositories  Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects   LearnAlberta.ca   TeleCampus  eaction=introduction eaction=introduction  eduSource Canada Project   Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects   LearnAlberta.ca   TeleCampus  eaction=introduction eaction=introduction  eduSource Canada Project 

17 USA-Based Examples  Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching   Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching   Gateway to Educational Materials

18 EducaNext Homepage

19 Metadata

20 Federated Search Broker 1 Broker 4 Broker 3 Broker 2

21 Learning Object Metadata? ImagesTextVideoAudio + Metadata LO files

22 What is a Learning Object Repository? Metadata Repository Content Repository

23 Learning Object Repositories Content sent to User LOR1LOR2LOR3 LOR # Metadata Repository Content Repositories Content Located Search Request

24 IEEE LOM – Meta-data Structure  Learning object data elements are grouped into nine categories: CategoryFunction 1GeneralGeneral information 2LifecycleFeatures related to the history and current state of the learning object 3Meta-MetadataInformation about the metadata instance itself 4TechnicalThe technical requirements and technical characteristics of the learning object 5EducationalGroups the educational and pedagogic characteristics of the learning object

25 CategoryFunction 6RightsGroups the intellectual property rights and conditions of use for the learning object 7RelationFeatures that define the relationship between the learning object and other related learning objects 8AnnotationProvides comments on the educational use of the learning object 9ClassificationDescribes this learning object in relation to a particular classification system IEEE LOM – Meta-data Structure

26 IMS Content package  Έχει 2 συστατικά:  Ένα ειδικό XML έγγραφο που περιγράφει την οργάνωση του περιεχομένου και αναφορές στα αντίστοιχα αρχεία –IMS manifest file: imsmanifest.xml. –Το Manifest file είναι μια περιγραφή σε XML κάποιων πόρων που συναποτελούν το υλικό του μαθήματος. Περιλαμβάνει επίσης τρόπους στατικής οργάνωσης των πόρων για παρουσίαση  Τα ίδια τα αρχεία  Τα παραπάνω ενοποιούνται σε ένα αρχείο (.zip,.jar,.cab κλπ) που πλέον ονομάζεται Package Interchange File.  Έχει 2 συστατικά:  Ένα ειδικό XML έγγραφο που περιγράφει την οργάνωση του περιεχομένου και αναφορές στα αντίστοιχα αρχεία –IMS manifest file: imsmanifest.xml. –Το Manifest file είναι μια περιγραφή σε XML κάποιων πόρων που συναποτελούν το υλικό του μαθήματος. Περιλαμβάνει επίσης τρόπους στατικής οργάνωσης των πόρων για παρουσίαση  Τα ίδια τα αρχεία  Τα παραπάνω ενοποιούνται σε ένα αρχείο (.zip,.jar,.cab κλπ) που πλέον ονομάζεται Package Interchange File.

27 IMS Content package

28 Logical and Packaging View Logical View Learning Content Structure as seen on the browser Packaging View Learning Content Oganisation in IMS CP

29 DSP Courseware Elements of Discrete Systems Properties of Discrete Systems Sampling of Analog Systems Sampling of Sinusiodal Systems Elements of Discrete Systems Properties of Discrete Systems The IMS content packaging manifest

30 The SCORM ADL Run-time environment (RTE) v1.3, [http://www.adlnet.org/]. Learning Content Management Systems

31 Για να τα πάρουμε τα πράγματα με τη σειρά ξανά …               CREATE CONTENT PACKAGE, TEST & MANIPULATE [RELOAD] STORE [REPOSITORY] DELIVER [MLE] 

32 Aloha Metadata Editor

33 Metadata Profile Editor 1

34 Metadata Profile Editor 2

35 Metadata Profile Editor 3

36 LRN toolkit – Ένα εργαλείο

37 simple sequencing

38 Simple Sequencing Activity A If status == “satisfied” Then goto C Else goto B Activity B Goto C Activity C If status == “not satisfied” Then goto A Else goto… Activity A Activity B Activity C If status == “satisfied” If status != “satisfied” Goto C If status == “not satisfied”

39 CP and SS

40 Sequencing Information Model  Control - describes where navigation events can originate from –Flow, Choice, Mixed, Auto  Traversal –Sequential, Any, Concurrent  PreviousAllowed – is backward traversal permitted (true/false)  Selection - how the set of sequenced items for the current aggregation are selected and ordered.  Pre-Condition (condition, action) –E.g. if max attempts exceeded, skip this item  Post-Condition (condition, action) –E.g. if failed, retry the item  Etc… to be defined.  Control - describes where navigation events can originate from –Flow, Choice, Mixed, Auto  Traversal –Sequential, Any, Concurrent  PreviousAllowed – is backward traversal permitted (true/false)  Selection - how the set of sequenced items for the current aggregation are selected and ordered.  Pre-Condition (condition, action) –E.g. if max attempts exceeded, skip this item  Post-Condition (condition, action) –E.g. if failed, retry the item  Etc… to be defined.

41 Tracking Information Model  Tracking information –Activity attempt count –Activity duration –Activity completion –Activity score –Activity mastery –Referenced learning objective/competency completion  Activity launch limits –Time limits for completion –Time based availability –Maximum attempt limit for completion –Prerequisite completion prior to entry  Tracking information –Activity attempt count –Activity duration –Activity completion –Activity score –Activity mastery –Referenced learning objective/competency completion  Activity launch limits –Time limits for completion –Time based availability –Maximum attempt limit for completion –Prerequisite completion prior to entry

42 Sequencing Rules  Rules include: –Precondition Rules  If … then Disable this activity  If … then Skip this activity in flow mode  If … then Stop Forward Traversal  If … then Hide this activity from Choice –Exit Action Rule  If … then Exit –Post Condition Rules  If… then Continue  If… then Previous  If… then Exit All  If… then Retry  If… then Retry All  Rules include: –Precondition Rules  If … then Disable this activity  If … then Skip this activity in flow mode  If … then Stop Forward Traversal  If … then Hide this activity from Choice –Exit Action Rule  If … then Exit –Post Condition Rules  If… then Continue  If… then Previous  If… then Exit All  If… then Retry  If… then Retry All

43 Question and Test Interoperability  Περιγράφει τη βασική δομή για την αναπαράσταση ερωτήσεων και test  Επιτρέπει την ανταλλαγή δεδομένων (ερωτήσεων-test) μεταξύ διαφόρων Learning Management Systems  Το QTI δεν ασχολείται με θέματα σχεδιασμού, user interfaces, τεχνολογιών ή παιδαγωγικών μοντέλων των εφαρμογών που το ακολουθούν  Περιγράφει τη βασική δομή για την αναπαράσταση ερωτήσεων και test  Επιτρέπει την ανταλλαγή δεδομένων (ερωτήσεων-test) μεταξύ διαφόρων Learning Management Systems  Το QTI δεν ασχολείται με θέματα σχεδιασμού, user interfaces, τεχνολογιών ή παιδαγωγικών μοντέλων των εφαρμογών που το ακολουθούν

44 Question and Test Interoperability  Διαφορετικοί τύποι «ερωτήσεων» που καλύπτονται από το QTI: –Multiple choice –True false –Multiple response –Image hot spot –Fill in the blank –Select text –Slide –Drag object –Drag target –Order objects –Match item –Connect the points  Διαφορετικοί τύποι «ερωτήσεων» που καλύπτονται από το QTI: –Multiple choice –True false –Multiple response –Image hot spot –Fill in the blank –Select text –Slide –Drag object –Drag target –Order objects –Match item –Connect the points

45 An example of QTI question

46

47 Simple True/False multiple-choice example. Paris is the Capital of France ? True False The IMS QTI manifest

48 Quiz tool  Create all the familiar forms of assessment including true-false, multiple choice, short answer, matching question, random questions, numerical questions, embedded answer questions with descriptive text and graphics.

49 An example of QTI question

50 QTI Resources  Specs, tutorials, DTDs and XDRs, XML examples, export validation tool –http://www.imsproject.org/question  The Questionmark viewer –http://www.questionmark.com/perception/h elp/qtixml.html  WebEx –http://www.webassessment.co.uk  SCAAN QTI tool –http://www.scaan.ac.uk/ims.html  Specs, tutorials, DTDs and XDRs, XML examples, export validation tool –http://www.imsproject.org/question  The Questionmark viewer –http://www.questionmark.com/perception/h elp/qtixml.html  WebEx –http://www.webassessment.co.uk  SCAAN QTI tool –http://www.scaan.ac.uk/ims.html

51 Learner profile standards IEEE PAPI IMS LIP

52 Comparison of standards IEEE PAPI categoriesIMS LIP categories Personal InformationIdentification RelationsRelationships* PreferenceAccessibility* PerformanceActivity*, QCL, Competency* PortfolioTranscript*, QCL ----Goals ----Interests

53 Course Act 1Act 2Act 3Act 4Act 5 Role-part 1 Role-part 2 Role-part 4 Role-part 5 Role Activity Environment Learning objects Learning services Activity- Description People engage in Activities with Resources roles (who does what) activities (what they do) environments (where they do them and what they do with them) (services) (learning objects).

54 Educational Modelling Language

55 Δραστηριότητες για LD  Problem-based learning (1) present problem (2) learner elaborates problem (e.g. through analysis, discussion) (3) learner seeks information (4) learner analyses and evaluate information for relevance (5) learner applies information to problem (6) learner presents solution(s)  Conversational model (Laurillard) (1) set task goal (2) describe conception of subject (3) learner describes conception of subject (4) re-describe in light of learner action or description (5) adapt task goal in light of action or description (etc)  Cognitive scaffolding (Piaget) (1) present content (2) learner engages in content-related task (3) test comprehension (4) present next content in scaffolded sequence (5) next content-related task (etc)  Problem-based learning (1) present problem (2) learner elaborates problem (e.g. through analysis, discussion) (3) learner seeks information (4) learner analyses and evaluate information for relevance (5) learner applies information to problem (6) learner presents solution(s)  Conversational model (Laurillard) (1) set task goal (2) describe conception of subject (3) learner describes conception of subject (4) re-describe in light of learner action or description (5) adapt task goal in light of action or description (etc)  Cognitive scaffolding (Piaget) (1) present content (2) learner engages in content-related task (3) test comprehension (4) present next content in scaffolded sequence (5) next content-related task (etc)

56 Development of EML at OU NL  At design-time the people are unknown therefore deal with Roles  The fundamental roles are Learner & Teacher but allow sub-roles to be defined also  Roles need to do different things at the same time allow separate activities with synchronisation points  Activities can have parts and sub-parts allow activity-structures to be created  Activities need to be organised over time support sequencing and user choice  Resources can be of many different types knowledge objects, communications, questions & tests, collaborative services, etc  Content needs to be presented via different media  At design-time the people are unknown therefore deal with Roles  The fundamental roles are Learner & Teacher but allow sub-roles to be defined also  Roles need to do different things at the same time allow separate activities with synchronisation points  Activities can have parts and sub-parts allow activity-structures to be created  Activities need to be organised over time support sequencing and user choice  Resources can be of many different types knowledge objects, communications, questions & tests, collaborative services, etc  Content needs to be presented via different media

57 Το όραμα…

58 συμπεράσματα  τα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών προσφέρουν τη δυνατότητα να περιγράψουμε διάφορες πληροφορίες που αφορούν τη μαθησιακή διαδικασία με ένα κοινά αποδεκτό τρόπο –εκπαιδευόμενους, περιεχόμενο, δραστηριότητες, κλπ  με βάση αυτήν την πληροφορία μπορούμε να δημιουργήσουμε εφαρμογές εξατομικευμένης μάθησης –με επαναχρησιμοποιήσιμο τρόπο  τα πρότυπα μαθησιακών τεχνολογιών προσφέρουν τη δυνατότητα να περιγράψουμε διάφορες πληροφορίες που αφορούν τη μαθησιακή διαδικασία με ένα κοινά αποδεκτό τρόπο –εκπαιδευόμενους, περιεχόμενο, δραστηριότητες, κλπ  με βάση αυτήν την πληροφορία μπορούμε να δημιουργήσουμε εφαρμογές εξατομικευμένης μάθησης –με επαναχρησιμοποιήσιμο τρόπο

59 Ας αποφύγουμε την πολυπλοκότητα …  Design is both art and science M.C. ESCHER

60

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