Old KIOS(Gemlik) According to the mythos of the GOLDEN FLEECE, Kios was founded by Argonaut YLAS in his return from Kolchis (Georgia). Its name is from the Argonaut KIOS. Ο Ηρόδοτος αποδίδει την ίδρυσή της στους Αργοναύτες στον Αργοναύτη Κίο κατά την επιστροφή του από την Κολχίδα. Άλλος μύθος αναφέρει πως η Αργώ προσάραξε αναγκαστικά στον κόλπο της Βιθυνίας προκειμένου ο ήρωας Ηρακλής, μέλος και αυτός του πληρώματος, να βρει κατάλληλο κορμό δέντρου ν’ αντικαταστήσει το σπασμένο του κουπί. Την εξεύρεση του κατάλληλου κορμού ανέθεσε στον Πολύφημο και στον Ύλα που ύστερα από μια καταπιεστική μέρα πήγε με μια χάλκινη στάμνα να φέρει νερό αλλά δεν γύρισε ποτέ μιας και τον απήγαγαν οι νύμφες του ποταμού Κίου. Οι σύντροφοι του Ηρακλή που έμειναν να αναζητούν τον Ύλα αποτέλεσαν τους πρώτους κατοίκους.
Hylas and the Nymphs, by John William Waterhouse (1896)
Hylas and the Water Nymphs του Edouard Theophile Blanchard
Propably the city of KIOS was founded in 625 B.C. as a colony of Miletus (in the same period Chalkidon, Kyzikos, Heraklaia and Astakos-Nikomedeia werw founded too. ) Kios prospered, due to its key position as a port and trading point for goods coming to and from the mainland and the industry of its inhabitants. In 553 BC Asia Minor came under the control of the Lydians and Persians. However, provided they paid their taxes to the new rulers, the citizens of Kios were allowed freedom and independence to develop their trade and way of life. In 466 BC the city was liberated by the Athenians. The Athenian General, Kimon, defeated the Persian navy in Cyprus and pushed the Persians back from the sea into the mainland for many years. The city of Kios, along with other cities of Asia Minor, was a member of the Delos Alliance from 466 BC onwards, taking part in the Ionian revolution. However, after the Athenian defeat at Sicely, Kios was again occupied by the Persians from 412 - 334 BC, when it was liberated by Alexander the Great.
The Romans in 74 BC after the death of King Nikomides III occupied Kios and the whole of Bythinia. Under the Roman occupation, Kios had an independent constitution, supervised by a Roman Consul. The city kept its Greek character, its commerce, arts and culture, as well as Kyzikos and Apameia. The region became well known and a favourite summer holiday resort for the Roman rulers. Distinguished Philosophers from Kios, such as Asklipiades and Archippos Flavios, managed to ensure many benefits for Kios, including changing its name back to Kios once again. During the Byzantine Empire, Kios obtained great significance due to its location, and even became a favourite holiday spot for the Byzantine Emperors. A military school was founded here by Emperor Justinian, which functioned for 37 years. Unfortunately, though, as well as being at the cross-roads of important trade routes, it was also at the centre of the many conflicts which raged at this time. The area was a theatre of war between the Byzantine Empire and its enemies. It suffered sustained invasions from Goths and Arabs, and disasters and sackings from the Crusaders and the Seljuks. The latter, a continental nomadic people, started appearing in 1100 AD and even managed to get a navy built, using the local Greek population's ship building skills. The first Turkish shipyard started operating in Kios around this time, though this was destroyed in 1092 AD by Emperor Alexios I, whilst trying to save Bythinia from the Seljuks. A new Turkish military shipyard was founded later in 1789 by Sultan Selim, which operated until 1860 AD.
In 1300 AD the Turks appeared under the leadership of Osman the First, destroying all the coastal cities of Propontis and succeeding in capturing Brussa in 1326. Ten years later in 1336, after a hard siege, they managed to capture Kios. The city was completely destroyed from its foundations upwards, and its citizens fled to Mount Argathonion, where they scraped a primitive existence in the hope of one day returning. These harsh conditions were relaxed between 1656 and 1710, when Murat IV was sultan, thus allowing the conditions for achievement and progress to flourish. Many Greek people from Kios and Kyzikos, being skilled shipbuilders, found good jobs after the foundation of the Turkish Military Shipyard. The city of Kios, whose population was mainly Greek, had the right to elect its own mayor. Between 1823 and 1839, when Mahmout II was sultan, the first reforms took place, and later, under the sultanship of Abthoul Mezit, the situation of the Christians improved. The religious, social and commercial structure of Kios was restored, and education was re-established with an increase in the number of teachers. Schools for boys and girls were founded at the expense of the Christian community. In 1908, after the announcement of the Turkish constitution, everyone celebrated the freedom and equality of all Turkish nationals, whatever their nationality or religion. But this happy state was not to last long.
After the World War I and the war between Turkey and Greece, the Christian Greek population of KIOS had to abandon their home. In the 25th of August, 1922, they embarked in eleven cargo ships and took refuge in Greece.
The first refuges built the New Kios in 1926 by the sea and the rivers Erasinos and Inachos. The whole area was a big swamp that they transformed to a beautiful village wth hard work.The New Kios has 4.000 inhabitants.
“Evagelismos of Theotokou” “Trixerousa” 2 icons from old Kios transferred to New Kios
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