Time 7000-3000 BCENeolithic Age 3000-2000 BCEEarly Greek Bronze Age –2000 BCEGreek Speaking peoples enter Greece 2000-1600 BCEMiddle Bronze Age Minoan civilization 1600-1100 BCELate Bronze Age: The Mycenaean Age –1250-1150 BCEPeriod of collapse of Troy VI and VII –1184 BCEtraditional date of the fall of Troy 1100-800 BCEDark Age 800-480 BCEArchaic Period and Invention of the Greek alphabet –800-700 BCEHomer and Hesiod –753 BCETraditional date for the foundation of Rome by Romulus 480-323 BCEClassical Period (Greece) Pindar, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Thucydides –447-438 BCEConstruction of the Parthenon –347Death of Plato 323-31 BCEHellenistic Period –323Death of Alexander the Great –322Death of Aristotle 27 BCE-284 CERoman Empire –14 CEDeath of Augustus 284-476 CELate Empire –313Edict of Milan (Constantine establishes tolerance for Christians.) –380Theodosius establishes Christianity as official (and only) religion –476sack of Rome
Place W. R. Shepherd. “Physical Map of Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa.” Historical Atlas. (New York: Henry Holt, 1926). Retrieved January 31, 2016. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/europe_w_asia_n_africa.jpg
HestiaZeusPoseidonHadesHeraDemeter Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 1-3 Δήμητρ’ ἠ ΰκομον σεμν ὴ ν θε ὰ ν ἄ ρχομ’ ἀ είδειν, α ὐ τ ὴ ν ἠ δ ὲ θύγατρα τανύσφυρον ἣ ν Ἀ ϊδωνε ὺ ς ἥ ρπαξεν, δ ῶ κεν δ ὲ βαρύκτυπος ε ὐ ρυόπα Ζεύς I begin the song of Demeter, the divine goddess, whose hair is beautiful, and her daughter, whose lovely ankles taper, whom Hades abducted; Zeus, seen from afar, the thunderer, gave her to him.
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 4-20 νόσφιν Δήμητρος χρυσαόρου ἀ γλαοκάρπου παίζουσαν κούρ ῃ σι σ ὺ ν Ὠ κεανο ῦ βαθυκόλποις, (5) ἄ νθεά τ’ α ἰ νυμένην ῥ όδα κα ὶ κρόκον ἠ δ’ ἴ α καλ ὰ λειμ ῶ ν’ ἂ μ μαλακ ὸ ν κα ὶ ἀ γαλλίδας ἠ δ’ ὑ άκινθον νάρκισσόν θ’, ὃ ν φ ῦ σε δόλον καλυκώπιδι κούρ ῃ Γα ῖ α Δι ὸ ς βουλ ῇ σι χαριζομένη πολυδέκτ ῃ θαυμαστ ὸ ν γανόωντα, σέβας τότε π ᾶ σιν ἰ δέσθαι (10) ἀ θανάτοις τε θεο ῖ ς ἠ δ ὲ θνητο ῖ ς ἀ νθρώποις· το ῦ κα ὶ ἀ π ὸ ῥ ίζης ἑ κατ ὸ ν κάρα ἐ ξεπεφύκει, κ ὦ ζ’ ἥ διστ’ ὀ δμή, π ᾶ ς δ’ ο ὐ ραν ὸ ς ε ὐ ρ ὺ ς ὕ περθε γα ῖ ά τε π ᾶ σ’ ἐ γέλασσε κα ὶ ἁ λμυρ ὸ ν ο ἶ δμα θαλάσσης. ἡ δ’ ἄ ρα θαμβήσασ’ ὠ ρέξατο χερσ ὶ ν ἅ μ’ ἄ μφω (15) καλ ὸ ν ἄ θυρμα λαβε ῖ ν· χάνε δ ὲ χθ ὼ ν ε ὐ ρυάγυια Νύσιον ἂ μ πεδίον τ ῇ ὄ ρουσεν ἄ ναξ πολυδέγμων ἵ πποις ἀ θανάτοισι Κρόνου πολυώνυμος υ ἱ ός. ἁ ρπάξας δ’ ἀ έκουσαν ἐ π ὶ χρυσέοισιν ὄ χοισιν ἦ γ’ ὀ λοφυρομένην· Away from Demeter, of the golden scepter, of the goodly crops, She was playing with the deep-hearted daughters of Ocean, Picking flowers, roses, crocuses, and beautiful violets, In a soft meadow, and irises, and hyacinth, And narcissus, which Earth grew as trick for the pretty girl According to the will of Zeus, a delight for the All-receiver, A marvel to behold, wondrous for all to see, Both immortal gods and mortal humans. From its stem a hundred blooms sprouted, And the sweetest smell; the whole wide heaven above, And all the earth laughed and the salty swell of the sea. The girl, astounded, reached with both hands at once To pluck the beautiful flower. The wide-wayed earth yawned In the Nysian plain, where the lord, the All- receiver, darted forth With his immortal horses, the many named son of Cronus. He seized her, unwilling, and led her, sobbing, away, in his golden chariot.
Hades and Persepho ne Gian- Lorenzo Bernini 1621-1622 marble h. 87 in. Galleria Borghese, Rome
Demeter 4 th century BCE h. 58 in. British Museum
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 398-403 ε ἰ δέ, πτ ᾶ σα πάλιν σύ γ’ ἰ ο ῦ σ’ ὑ π ὸ κεύθεσι γαίης ο ἰ κήσεις ὡ ρέων τρίτατον μέρος ε ἰ ς ἐ νιαυτόν, τ ὰ ς δ ὲ δύω παρ’ ἐ μοί τε κα ὶ ἄ λλοις ἀ θανάτοισιν. (400) ὁ ππότε δ’ ἄ νθεσι γα ῖ ’ ε ὐ ώδεσιν ἠ αρινο ῖ σι παντοδαπο ῖ ς θάλλει, τότ’ ἀ π ὸ ζόφου ἠ ερόεντος α ὖ τις ἄ νει μέγα θα ῦ μα θεο ῖ ς θνητο ῖ ς τ’ ἀ νθρώποις. If you have eaten anything, you will return again beneath the depths of the earth, And you will live there a third part of each year; The other two-thirds of the time you will spend with me and the other immortals. When the spring blooms with all sorts of sweet- smelling flowers, Then again you will rise from the gloomy region below, A great wonder for the gods and mortals.
Hesiod Works and Days 449ff. Mark, when you hear the voice of the crane who cries year by year from the clouds above [mid-November], for she gives the signal for ploughing and shows the season of rainy winter; but she vexes the heart of the man who has no oxen. Then is the time to feed up your horned oxen in the byre; for it is easy to say: “Give me a yoke of oxen and a wagon,” and it is easy to refuse: “I have work for my oxen.” 485ff. For if you should plough late, you may find this remedy—when the cuckoo first calls [March] in the leaves of the oak and makes men glad all over the boundless earth, if Zeus should send rain on the third day and not cease until it rises neither above an ox's hoof nor falls short of it, then the late-plougher will vie with the early. 383ff. When the Pleiades, daughters of Atlas, are rising [early May], begin your harvest, and your ploughing when they are going to set [November]. 565ff When Zeus has finished sixty wintry days after the [winter] solstice, then the star Arcturus leaves the holy stream of Ocean and first rises brilliant at dusk. After him the shrilly wailing daughter of Pandion, the swallow, appears to men when spring is just beginning. Before she comes, prune the vines, for it is best so.
Hekatombaion Metageitnion Boedromion Pyanepsion Maimakterion Posideon Posideon II Gamelion Anthesterion Elaphebolion Mounichion Thargelion Skirophorion 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 384 336/5 July 6 August 5 September 3 October 3 November 1 December 1 December 30 January 29 February 28 March 29 April 28 May 27 June 26 Prytany I 39 Prytany II 39 Prytany III 38 Prytany IV 38 Prytany V 38 Prytany VI 38 Prytany VII 38 Prytany VIII 39 Prytany IX 39 Prytany X 38
Festival Month and Day Noumeniafirst of every month Day of Agathos Daimonsecond of every month Athena’s Daythird of every month Day of Herakles,fourth of every month Hermes, Aphordite, and Eros Artemis’s Daysixth of every month Apollo’s Dayseventh of every month Day of Poseidoneighth of every month and Theseus PanathenaiaHekatombaion 28 Eleusinian MysteriesBoedromion 15-17, 19-22 ThesmophoriaPyanopsion 10 City DionysiaElaphebolion 10-16
Lunar year: 354 days Solar year: 365.24219 days Sideral year: 365.2564